THE ECONOMIC WEEKLYDecember 19, 1959Relationship between Technology and SociologyIn Economic GrowthD S Chauhan Nview o f the efforts and theachievements of economic p l a n n i n g in o u r c o u n t r y one is i n c l i n e dto feelthat a l t h o u g hseriousnessand a sense of urgency are gatheringm o m e n t u m , thefundamentalbase f o r economic g r o w t h has beenestablished, and the country is onthe road to economic progress, thedanger of f a i l u r e is s t i l l present ifthere is an insufficiently r a p i d rateof g r o w t h or speed of development.T h i s danger is very real due to ther a p i d increase i n p o p u l a t i o nandthe low level ofl i v i n g on w h i c hdevelopment is based.T h e conditions f o r accelerating the rate ofg r o w t h in the field ofagricultureare examined in this paper.FAILURE ON THE SOCIAL SIDEIncrease i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o nis p a r t l y a technical and p a r t l y asocial matter. Regarding the former, it is felt that the existing levelof research and the k n o w l e d g e andpractices of a g r i c u l t u r a l husbandryof farmers are capable of feedingthe nation on a m u c h higher levelof consumption.The reportsbyVoelker, Russel, Burns, Khareghat,and the recent (1959) I n d i a n delegation of experts and technicians toChina bear testimony to this. Tec h n o l o g y shows what can be done;yet it has not been done. The prob l e m , therefore, lies l a r g e l y in thesocial or organisational sphere.There is considerable evidencef o r this. The inaptness of thephrase that 'ownership of land turnssand i n t o g o l d ' , was exposed by ther e p o r t a p p r a i s i n g the achievementso f the F i r s t Five Y e a r P l a n w h i c hmentioned that'the l a n dreformmeasures have largely f a i l e d ' toachieve theobjectives ofhighera g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d peasantp r o s p e r i t y . O n l y 4.6 m i l l i o n acresout of 6.4 m i l l i o n acres of the extension o f i r r i g a t i o n b y major i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s were u t i l i z e d . O u r recent study of large scale f a r m i n gi n western U t t a r Pradesh showedthat there was no relationship between the extent of i r r i g a t i o n andthat o f double c r o p p i n g , p r o v i n gt h a t even incases of progressivefarmers w h o f o l l o w a g r i c u l t u r e as abusiness p r o p o s i t i o n , w h o take advantage of Government facilities ext e n s i v e l y , a n d w h o respond t o m a r k -et conditions adequately, this f o r mof a g r i c u l t u r a lintensity was notgoverned bytechnological factors( i r r i g a t i o n ) but b y non-technicalones. Table I gives examples.An e x a m i n a t i o n of the data relati n g t o l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n i n U t t a r Pradesh (Table I I ) shows that the expansion of the cultivated area sincethe b e g i n n i n g of the F i r s t Five Y e a rP l a n has been due m a i n l y to thea d d i t i o n of f a l l o w land b r o u g h t under the p l o u g h and not due to theextension of i r r i g a t i o n or t h r o u g hother technological factors. ( T h etotal area o f l a n d i n U P i n 1956-57was enlarged by the inclusion ofBanaras and R a m p u r States.)ORGANISATIONAL FAILUREI n spite o f the record o u t p u t i na g r i c u l t u r e , especially food grains,this year, food prices not o n l y in thedeficit but also in the surplus foodregions are very h i g h . T h i s yearthe mango crop especially in U Pwas also v e r y good, b u t the garddens w h i c h were n o r m a l l y auctionedf o r Rs 10,000 fetched h a r d l y 3 to 4thousand rupees.(UncertaintyinAgriculture by G V K S i n g h .Unpublished Thesis for Ph D degree,Institute of Social Sciences, A g r a . )These t w o facts show that consumers and producers face the samedifficulties and hardships in goodyears as in bad ones. F i n a l l y , theu n u t i l i z e d f i n a n c e s i n the C D andN E S blocks (as it appears f r o mt h e i r annual budgets and the E v a l u ation Reports) in spite of f r a n t i cefforts to exhaust the budgetary allocations d u r i n g the closing m o n t hof the financial year, reveal the i n adequacy of the execution of thedevelopmental p r o g r a m m e s ; or statedanother way, t h e i r organizationalfailure.The incapacity of the executivemachineryof the Government isalso demonstrated by State T r a d i n gi n food grains, seasonal ( K h a r i fand R a b i )Drives and Campaigns,Special Weeks ( l i k e H e a l t h W e e k )and 'Utsavas' ( l i k e the Vanmahotsava), etc. F a i l u r e to c u r b h o a r d i n gin trade channels, to check the speculative influence on r i s i n g f o o dprices, a n d to procure g r a i n t h r o u g hn o r m a l tradechannels, hascompelled the State to resort to StateTrading.K h a r i f and R a b i Drives,1709w h i c h are characterized as 'emergencies,' and special measures under e x t r a o r d i n a r y situations, are inanother language an admissionoff a i l u r e on the p a r t of State A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments and other agencies whose n o r m a l d u t y it is to carryon these programmes. If one scrutinizes the p r o g r a m m e of any Drivesor Campaigns one finds that it consists m a i n l y of intensification ofeffort to speed up the supply of cred i t , fertilizers, seeds and the propagationof the so-calledbetterf a r m i n g methods.These are exactly the activitiesw h i c h the vast network of CD a n dN E S and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Departments of States are expected to performcontinuously. The fact thatspecial Drives and Campaigns areconsiderednecessaryshows thatthese agencies havefailed to perf o r m their regular n o r m a l functionsand are incapable of a d a p t i n gtothe exigencies of a situation w h i c his supposedly their routine competence. In the case of p r o v i d i n gcredit, fertilizers and seeds to farmers the argument of 'Emergency'is meaningless, since these p r o b l e msituations are chronic and not suddenappearances. This contentionis corroborated by the outcome ofthese Drives. The sixth E v a l u a t i o nReport o n W o r k i n g o f C D and N E SBlocks by the P r o g r a m m e E v a l u a t i o nOrganisation states that the last R a b iproduction Driveproduced morefuss than food, most farmers appearnot to have heard of the D r i v e a n dthe officers of the DepartmentofA g r i c u l t u r e generally showed no i n terest. S i m i l a r is the case of V a n mahotsava w h i c h has not increasedthe area under forests or the Sanitation Week w h i c h has not madecities cleaner.T H E HUMAN ELEMENT INDEVELOPMENTAn outstanding experience of theI n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n was that economic development is o v e r a l l progress. M o r e recently the phenomenaldevelopments w h i c h have taken placein the Chinese economy in generaland i n her agriculture i n p a r t i c u l a rdemonstrate the importance of thesocio-cultural transformation,thes k i l f u l utilization of indigenous resources, p a r t i c u l a r l y manpower and

THE ECON O M I C WEEKLYDecember 19, 19591710

THE ECONOMIC WEEKLYthe coordinated nature of the p l a n ned programmes along w i t h thetechnical improvements for raisingp r o d u c t i v i t y . TheReport of theI n d i a n Delegation to China on A g r i cultural Planning andTechniques,J u l y / A u g u s t 1956, while discussingthe measures for i m p l e m e n t i n g thetechnical reforms ( p p .140-1) menlions that" w h i l e both agrarian reorganization and the economic measures . . .were necessary for the creation ofconditions conducive to the development of Chinese agriculture, in thelast analysis actual increase in production could be brought aboutmainly b y technical reforms . . . .By technical reforms, the Chineseauthorities mean not merely mechanization and the adoption of moderntechniques but also the popularization of o l d techniques which havebeeij traditional in some areas orw i t h some groups of farmers huthave not been popular in other areas. . . . The technical reforms whichthey are emphasising at present aremostly the well-known methods ofintensive c u l t i v a t i o n . . . . There i sno technical measure in the field ofagriculturepractisedinChinaw h i c h is really new."The recent I n d i a n delegation ofexpertsandtechnicians v i s i t i n gChina ( 1959') were most impressedby the type of organization employed for achieving outstanding resultsin agriculturerather than by anynew techniques which are being usedin China and which are not knownor used in I n d i a . Out of the eightpoints of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Charterw h i c h according to the Chinese havebrought about aphenomenal i n crease in their agricultural production, six ( w i t h the exception of two.deep p l o u g h i n g and close p l a n t i n g !are already used inI n d i a . Thesecret of success in Chinese agricult u r a l development appears to becollective effort on a large scale.December 19, 1959villagecooperatives and the N E S ,the pivotal point of t h i n k i n g is man.Past experience of economic planning in India shows that technologyand not man has been the centralpoint of t h i n k i n g .This is evident from the financialallocations on various items in thetwo Plans, f r o m the fact that a traditionally feudal rural society and acapitalistic urban society areintendedto be transformed into aPIVOTAL POINT — M A NIt is realized now that economicp l a n n i n g cannot be an i m p o s i t i o nf r o m above, and a one way trafficf r o m the Government, nomatterhow great its capacity and financialsoundness. The nation w i l l rise onlyby the efforts of its millions. Themost important factor for accelerati n g the rate of progress is people'sactive p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Whether wet h i n k of establishing a sound systemof r u r a ldemocracy or of a selfgenerating and self-accelerating econ o m y t h r o u g h village panchayats,1711socialisticpattern ofsociety hutthere has been practically no education of the people in the new -valuesof socialistic pattern, and from thefact that there has been no organized system of education of the massesin the new values of the great p o l i tical, economic and social changesthat have and are taking place.Secondly. the organizational set-upwhich is necessary to carry on theproduction programme successfully


THE ECONOMIC WEEKLYi n the f o r m o fa g r i c u l t u r a l creditand m a r k e t i n g o f f a r m produce hasp r o v e d too inadequate. T h i r d l y ,the social relationships a n d the i n s t i t u t i o n a l frame-work likewise havenot beensocially engineered andconsciously constructed according tothe needs of the t i m e . U n d e r suchcircumstances the apathy ofthemasses to economic p l a n n i n g ingeneral and t o N E S programmes i np a r t i c u l a r is quite natural.F a r m pricesd u r i n g therecentpast have been sufficiently attractiveandremunerative.If they havefailed to p r o v i d e an incentivetofarmers for higher p r o d u c t i o n , thereis something fundamentally l a c k i n gon the organizational side. W h e nthis f o r m of directmonetary gainhas not awakened general interest orhas not motivatedfarmers' activep a r t i c i p a t i o n and cooperation,therealization of a sense of responsibility towards the c o m m u n i t y or thenation areremoteandabstractideals.It is necessary to generatea basic impulse and stimulate andchannelize it in a p a r t i c u l a r direct i o n , to increase the effectiveness ofmanpower, to change temperamentandt r a d i t i o n , the institutionalf r a m e w o r k and the valuesystem.Inshort weneed atremendousamount of investment in wan,Thesuccess i n economicplanning willalways be governed and l i m i t e d byi t . The recent experience of thehelp given to underdeveloped countries by the U n i t e d Nations, its specialized agencies and the Foundations has beenthat the help wassuccessful only when the three formsin w h i c h itwas given,money,machine and men (technical knowhow, along w i t h financial and techn i c a l h e l p ) , were in o p t i m u m balance and in theabsence of anyone of them, the other two provedwasteful and thus purposeless.DETERIORATION I N RURALENVIRONMENTW h i l e considering the conditionsfor a r a p i d rate of g r o w t h in a g r i culture, two i m p o r t a n t considerations seem to be necessary :Ther u r a l environment i n w h i c h the a g r i c u l t u r a l activity is carried on is asimpoverished today as it wasbefore the F i v e Y e a r Plans. I n spite o fa g r i c u l t u r e being given the highestp r i o r i t y i n the F i r s t F i v e Year Planand a sufficiently h i g hp r i o r i t y inthe Second, the gap between r u r a land u r b a n incomes per capita hasbeen g r a d u a l l yincreasing.Uttarp r a d e s h provides a n i l l u s t r a t i o n . I t sDecember 19, 1959was Rs 191.21 a n d the u r b a n i n come per capita was Rs 5 5 5 . 7 1 , thegap b e i n g Rs 364.5. In1956-57the r u r a l income per capita at current prices was Rs 174.27 and at1948-49 prices it was Rs 194.92,w h i l e the u r b a n income per capitaat current prices was Rs 590.76 andat 1948-49 prices Rs 7 0 2 . 6 1 . Thegap in 1956-57was Rs 416.49 atcurrentprices a n d Rs 507.69 interms of prices in 1948-49. (Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, U P V o lX I I , N o 9 ) T h i s shows how fareconomic p l a n n i n g has benefittedurban areas in comparision to r u r a lareas. Besides, the cost of l i v i n g inr u r a l areas in c o m p a r i s i o n to thatin urban areas is not comparativelyas low as is p o p u l a r l ybelieved.T h i s is because not o n l y the nonf a r m i n g but also a good deal off a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n depends on purchase of grains(since the amountof actual sales is far greater thanthe marketable s u r p l u s ) , and r u r a lretailprices are not substantiallybelow u r b a n ones. In case of credit purchases, the actual price p a i dmay he more.In absolute terms the masses inthe countryside are l i v i n g at a verylow level. It is to be appreciatedthat at the level of hand-to-mouthl i v i n g theresistance to shocks isvery l i m i t e d , and s i m i l a r l y the capacity to i m p r o v e is also very l i m i t e d ,All this shows the incapacity of thewhole r u r a l environment for r a p i dprogress. Besides, the deteriorationin the law and order situation, theprejudice developed against the oldzamindars, m o u n t i n g tensions andfactions and lack of opportunitiesfor investment and employment inthenon-agricultural sector in thevillages have resulted in the gradualdepletion of men and money fromr u r a l areas and their concentrationin cities. The y o u n g leadershipw h i c h is now emerging in villagesis very manipulative, exploitive ofthe masses, and earns its l i v e l i h o o dthrough undesirablemethods andpractices. A l l these things l i m i t therate of progress in agriculture andin r u r a l areas.DETERIORATION IN LIFESince thetransfer ofpoliticalpower, there has been a decline ina u t h o r i t y , of codes of m o r a l i t y , det e r i o r a t i o n in values andfrequentemergence of uncontrolled and antisocial behaviour. T h i s is beingmanifested in all walks of publicand private l i f e i n w h i c h inefficiency,c o r r u p t i o n , dishonesty a n d favouri-1713tism are becoming a normal featureof d a i l y life. It is very difficult tol i v e w i t h honesty. Food a n d medicines are adulterated.Crimes areincreasing; they are not detected,a n d even if detected, they go unp u n i s h e d ; and this further encourages crimes. Justice is delayed anddenied. In spite of a huge expansionin the cost of c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n( i n f o u r years since 1955-56, f r o mRs 94 crores to Rs 223 crores inU P ) there is no corresponding economic expansion and visible sign ofimprovement in the phases of l i f ecovered under developmental socialservices or administrativeservices.Government statements and decisions h u r r i e d l y taken are frequentlyrevised, w i t h the result that the public loses confidence in the words ofleaders.Government officials hesitate to take decisions, and in manycases do not have faith in the developmental programmes they c a r r yon.This is mostly true of the agric u l t u r a l programmes underNES.The result is that the statements ofachievements f r o m Block levels aregrossly exaggerated, w h i c h one findsdeflated in the Evaluation Reportsof the P E O , or on spot checking. Byw a y of i l l u s t r a t i o n , it may be mentioned That aparticularBlockstatementshowed an area undermanurepits w h i c hexceeded thetotal block area.(D S Chauhan,Institute of Social Sciences, BulletinNo 1, P. 23, 1958) T h i s may bean extreme type of i l l u s t r a t i o n f o rthe accuracy of N E S statements, butthings on the whole are of a h i g h l ydoubtfulnature.M a n y have adoubt, I have my o w n , about theaccuracy of this year's(1958-59)recorded a g r i c u l t u r a l output, spec i a l l y of food grains (of over 73m i l l i o n tons) in the country, andaccepting it as the sure and stablelevel of progress attained. But i n dividualexperience and study oflocal conditions and smaller coverage usually lack the stamp of author i t y . However, the overall result isthat the level of health, literacy, economic, political social and m o r a ll i f e , in short the whole p u b l i c andprivate l i f e , is at a very low level.A n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n lacks efficiencyand i n t e g r i t y . There is no p r e m i u mon and incentive for honestyandh a r d w o r k : on the contrary, bothare at a very great discount thesedays. under such circumstances arise of 6 per cent in national i n come, or a rate of saving of 14 percent per year, or an output of 110

December 19, 1959THE ECONOMIC WEEKLY1714

THE ECONOMIC WEEKLYm i l l i o n tons of food grains by 196566 (theproposedtarget for. theT h i r d Five Year P l a n ) , even ifthey are achieved, w i l l lose most oftheir meaning and significance, ifthe p r e v a i l i n g conditions and furtherdeterioration inh u m a n lifecontinue. On the other hand, suchan atmosphere creates a danger ofcollapse of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , development of reactionary forces, and u l t i mately m i l i t a r y rule.CONFLICT OF OBJECTIVESThe hasteobjective of planningin the economic field (as it appearsfrom the aim of establishing asocialistic pattern of society, expansionof the public sector inindustries. nationalization of transport and banking; slate t r a d i n g infood grains, and cooperative f a r m ing etc. ) seems to concentrate onsociety. community or group as thenucleus.On the otherhand, theprogramme in the social and p o l i t i cal aspects flaw of succession andinheritance, social and c r i m i n a l justice, i n d i v i d u a l liberty and adultfranchise, etc. I seems to concentrateon thei n d i v i d u a l as thepivotalpoint. Thus there appears to be adichotomy in our approach or polarity in goal fixation. We have aimed at the establishment of politicaland social democracy, t h r o u g h democratic methods. But at the sametime the objectives of the economicprogrammedo notenvisage thesame role and status of the i n d i v i dual in society. There is an inherent conflict in the basic objectives.A n d this conflict is bound to resultinmaladjustments in socialandeconomicrelationships and values.It is. therefore, very necessary thatin our programme of social change,the correctposition of man(thet r i a d M a n — Behaviour — Societyor Person — Value — I n s t i t u t i o n )be kept as the focal point and theinherent conflict be resolved.The basic problem is to make ourhuge manpower w o r k h a r d . ' W o r k i n g h a r d ' i m p l i e s several stages; aspirations for higher l i v i n g , awakening of consciousness, s t i m u l a t i n g ando r g a n i z i n g it into common or socialaction, and sustaining i t . W h a t wep o p u l a r l y call 'people's active p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' is the c u l m i n a t i o n point,the f r u i t i n g stage of a plant, w h i c hmust be attained, t h r o u g h stages. T h ep r o b l e m is essentially h u m a n thoughnot w h o l l y , since tools and technology have to be taken as means. Itis i m p o r t a n t to notethat even inDecember 19, 1959programmes like i r r i g a t i o n , reclamation andafforestation,labourcosts are very h i g h . As a humanproblem, p l a n n i n g includes physical,psychological.intellectual. moraland s p i r i t u a l aspects of i n d i v i d u a ll i f e along w i t h his social and economic relationships. W h e n democraticmethods are to be used and peopleare poor and ignorant, the task becomes more difficult; and the speedofprogress w i l ldepend ontheq u a n t u m and the quality of effortput in to improve the human element at all these stages. T h i s i m plies complete reorientation of man,and needs increasing the investmentin man.M O T I V A T I O N FOR HARD WORKThe shifting of educated and intelligent men and of wealthfromvillages to cities, w h i c h is reducingthe potentiality of the villages fordevelopment,has to bechecked.This needs the creation of a peacefulsocial environment ( w o r t h w h i l e conditions of l i v i n g ) and opportunitiesfor investment and employment inthe countryside. The latter calls forthe development of r u r a l , r u r a l industrializationand thecreation of localmarketcentres (small towns of moderatesize).At present in spite of an excessive pressure of population on land,even tiny holdings are undereultivated (D S Chauhan. 'Location ofthe MostEconomically OperatedFarm Units." Indian Farming V o lXI No. 10) which is an importantfactor for low yields. This is essentially (not wholly) aproblem ofconsciousness and aspirations. Starvation in lethargy w i t h a resignedfatalism has to be substituted by anaspiration for better l i v i n g t h r o u g hpersonal effort. There are occasionsfor weeding, ploughing, m a n u r i n g ,watching, and inter-cultural operations when farmers while away theirtime. Resides, realization of landrevenue, i r r i g a t i o nchanges, taxesand loans in k i n d maystimulatethefarmers tosome extent forhigher p r o d u c t i o n .[n the absence of compulsion forhard work, motivation has to besocially engineered. The concept ofhard workmust be sold ' widely.Further, the motivation can be monetary and non-monetary. Non-monetary incentives can help achievinghigher production. but this needs ahigher degree of social conscious-1715ness. At present, therefore, greaterreliance should be placed on .monetary incentives. Apart from directandindirectinducements.thereshould be an obligation to workhard, and in this regard, activization must be distinguished f r o mcompulsion.A l l o w i n g people tocontinue to starve in idleness is tomake fun ofi n d i v i d u a l freedomand democracy.New farmers Clandles, labourersand other non-agricultural communities settled on land are inefficientagriculturists. Similarly new landsbrought under cultivation yield less.It is more difficult to increase production in thesecases. Not thatthey should be completely neglected,greater concentration should be madeon better lands, where yield can increase q u i c k l y .Besidesconsiderable improvement in outturn is possible throughcropadjustments,since areas of higher crop intensityand higher yields do not coincide atpresent D S Chauhan. Indian FarmEconomy. Unpublished Thesis. AgraUniversity ). This should be possiblethrough expanding the monetizedsector of agriculture, and throughcrop planning, to he implementedthrough panchayats.WHAT CAN BE DONEM a i n farm situations resulting inlow yields are organizational problems. They are partly responsiblefor the ineffectiveness of a g r i c u l t u ral services. ln order to overcomethese difficulties and to provide thenecessary stimulus, agricultural act i v i t y is intended to be organizedthroughcooperativefarms(onevillage one society and one farm —the N a g p u r Resolution of the A . LC.C)This w i l l lead to inefficientadministration ( being guided by them a j o r i t y in the total v i l l a g e ! andlack of incentive for hard work andhigher production. For higher production a better alternative may beseveralcooperativefarms (alongw i t h individual f a r m i n g ) in a v i l lage, and several cooperative farming societies. Efficient service en.operatives are. however, very necessary.These things arewidely k n o w n .What is needed is efficient w o r k i n g .It is common knowledge that mostof the cooperative loans are fake,and similar is the case with the dist r i b u t i o n of fertilizers. seeds andother things in NES. What progresscan be expected under such circum-

THEDecember 19, 1959stances, when so much of the developmental effort is amere papere n t r y ? T h i s is essentially a h u m a np r o b l e m . W i t h sincerity of efforton the part of those who have toexecute the developmental p r o g r a m -mes, s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the procedureto speed up action. reliance on technical advice ( j u d g m e n t of the technical staff) and e l i m i n a t i o n of theso called non-official advice ( w h i c husually amounts to interference and1716ECONOMICWEEKLYf a v o u r i t i s m ) , f o r m u l a t i o n o f thespecificprogrammes on the spot,and t i g h t e n i n g u p o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o nin general, considerable i m p r o v e mentandspeedydevelopmentshould be possible.

to feel that although seriousness and a sense of urgency are gather ing momentum, the fundamental base for economic growth has been established, and the country is on the road to economic progress, the danger of failure is still present if there is an insufficiently rapid rate of growth or speed of development. This danger is very real due to the