Keeping things in perspective: Cuba and the question ofinternational terrorism“For almost 40 years, we have isolated Cuba on the assumption that the tiny island is a center of terrorism inthe hemisphere, and year after year we gain new evidence that it is the U.S. that has terrorized Cuba and notthe other way around.”—Robert Scheer, The Los Angeles Times, July 14, 19981By Anya K. Landau and Wayne S. SmithNovember 20, 2001Since the heinous terrorist attacks on the WorldTrade Center and Pentagon this past September 11,there has been a concerted effort on the part of hardline Cuban exiles in Miami and their political alliesin Washington to describe Cuba as part of aninternational terrorist network and to suggest that theUnited States must act against Castro as part of itsresponse to the September 11 attacks.It is unfortunate that these groups would try totake advantage of the September 11 tragedy toadvance their own narrow anti-Castro agenda,during a time when U.S. foreign policy mostrequires cooperation with all nations willing to workwith us in the struggle against terrorism. A point-bypoint response to these allegations is given below.Moreover, our stand on terrorism must not beselective. Some of the same hard-line exiles whonow accuse Cuba of involvement in terrorism havesupported—and in some cases still support—Cubanexile terrorism in the U.S. and against Cuba.“Lawless violence and intimidation have been thehallmark of el exilio for more than thirty years,”writes Jim Mullin in an April 20, 2000 Miami NewTimes article chronicling Miami’s struggle withexile terrorism. “Of course it goes without sayingthat the majority of Cuban Americans in Miami donot sanction violence, but its long tradition withinthe exile community cannot be ignored and cannotsimply be wished away.”2The U.S. agenda regarding Cuba needs nowmore than ever to be constructive and to serve theinterests of the American people. The Cold War isover, a fact President Bush and Secretary of StateColin Powell have stressed in forging a newrelationship with Russia. Cuba is no longersupporting insurgencies abroad, its weaponry isobsolete and U.S. national security demands that wehave reliable intelligence communications with ourclosest neighbors.The Cubans are cooperating in drug interdictionand immigration issues and have offered tocooperate in the international effort to eradicateterrorism. Trying to link Castro to internationalterrorist activities without hard evidence merelydetracts from the effort to come to grips with the realthreats. Now that the Cuban government has pledgedfull support for United Nations initiatives toeradicate terrorism, we should engage it, just as wehave many other nations with whom we havesubstantial disagreements.To end terrorism everywhereIf we truly want to ferret out terrorists anywherein the world, historydemands that we take If we truly want toa look much closer to ferret out terroristshome.Militant hard-line anywhere in theexile activities in the world, we mustlate 70s and early 80s take a look muchcaused the FBI to closer to home.designate Miami the“terrorist capital” of the United States. The terroristactivities in Miami included death threats, beatings,mob attacks, vandalism, extortion, bombings andoutright murder. These activities are welldocumented by the Justice Department and theMiami-Dade police department.3In a “Frontline” interview on February 8 of thisyear, Miami-based Francisco Aruca, founder ofMarazul Tours and Radio Progreso, himself a Cuban1

exile who opposed the revolution and has been thetarget of exile terrorism, lamented the strangleholdthe extremist segment of Cuban Miami hasmaintained on the Miami area since the 1960s:had to rescue a radio show host from Oregon whenhe was attacked by the crowd outside the home ofElián Gonzalez’s Miami relatives. The mandisplayed a t-shirt that said “Send the boy home,”and“A father’s rights”.7From the moment they started realizing that the federalEven the Archdiocese in Miami received threatsgovernment was not going to invade Cuba and overthrow thegovernment, they started practicing terrorism in Miami,”when its Catholic Services coordinated andrevealed Aruca in the “Frontline” interview. “In the early 1970s,supervised humanitarian aid to Cuba after hurricaneyou are going to find that in a period of less than five years,Lili in 1996.8close to 100 bombs went off in Miami, including at the FBIBut the violence has not been limited to Miami;office. The bombs were placed by Cuban exiles who feltbombings and assassination attempts mastermindedbetrayed by the American government. People who werepromoting a dialogue with the Cuban government wereby notorious Cuban exile terrorist groups such asassassinated. If anything, the path of this segment of the exileAlpha 66 (founded in 1961 and still training in the4community has been a very violent path in Miami.Everglades), Omega 7 (founded in 1974), TheCuban Nationalist Movement (CNM-founded inThough the Dade county police department and1960), Movimiento Insureccional de Recuperaciónthe Justice Department have documented many moreRevolucinaria (MIRR-founded in 1959), andcases of Cuban exile terrorism over the past fortyCommando of United Revolutionary organizationsyears (reports by both agencies are referenced at the(CORU-founded in 1976), to name but a few,end of this paper), Mullin’s article in the Miami Newoccurred throughout Latin America and in theTimes chronicled sixty-eight acts of Cuban exileU.S.—Miami, New York, New Jersey andviolence in the Miami area alone from 1968-2000,Washington, D.C.—as well.9including the bombings of:One of the most startling attacks rocked The Continental National Bank, where BernardoWashington, DC on September 21, 1976. The carBenes, who was one of seventy-five Cubanbombing on Embassy Row that killed Orlandoexiles who met with Fidel Castro to negotiateLetelier, the former Chilean foreign minister whothe release of 3600spoke out against thepolitical prisoners in “From the outside, it certainly appearsPinochet regime, and hisCuba,wasan like just another incident of terroristcolleague, Ronni Moffitt, hasexecutive (in 1983);coddling at the foundation. It's no secretbeen called one of the worst the Cuban Museumactsofstate-sponsoredthat foundation veterans enjoy alliancesof Art (in 1988 andterrorismcarriedout in thewith some of the exile community's mostagain 1990);United States. The Chileaninfamous terrorists”-Liz Balmaseda the home of Mariasecret police (DINA) hiredCristina Herrera, the organizer of a conferenceCuban exile extremists, known to be sympathetic toon U.S.-Cuba relations (1988- the bomb wasthe Pinochet government, to assassinate him. Fivediscovered in her garage before it went off);well-known exile terrorists were indicted: Jose Marazul Tours, which arranges travel to CubaDionisio Suarez Esquivel (nicknamed 'Charco de(1989 and again in 1996);Sangre'--Puddle of Blood), Virgilio Paz Romero, Little Havana’s Centro Vasco, prior to theAlvin Ross and brothers Guillermo and Ignacioperformance of Cuban singer Rosita FornesNovo.10(1996);Suarez and Paz were fugitives from justice for the Amnesia nightclub before a performance bytwelveyears until finally apprehended (Paz wasCuban singer Manolín (1999). 5featured on the television show "America's MostWanted"). They both plead guilty to theirThe 1980s and 1990s saw bomb threats andinvolvement in the assassination and were sentencedexplosions that were targeted against businesses thatto 12 years in jail and served half of that time.11shipped packages to Cuba or arranged travel to CubaThough U.S. law requires that non-U.S. citizensand venues that featured Cuban musicians. Concertmust be returned to their country of origin afterattendees were stoned by protestors after the 1999incarceration, the two convicted terrorists were takenperformance of the Cuban band, Los Van Van. One6into INS custody because there is no deportationperson was injured and twelve were arrested.agreement with Cuba.During the Elián Gonzalez custody dispute, police2

In August, Miami Herald columnist LizBosch was released from an Atlanta prison inBalmaseda noted that the Cuban American National1972, but he violated parole and left the country lessFoundation (CANF) had “diligently fought” to getthan two years later. In November 1974, VenezuelanPaz released from INS custody, adding that, "Frompolice linked Bosch to two bombings, arrested himthe outside, it certainly appears like just anotherand offered to return him to the United States. Inincident of terrorist coddling at the foundation. It'sFebruary 1976, Costan Rican police arrested Boschno secret that foundation veterans enjoy alliancesfor plotting to assassinate Henry Kissinger on a visitwith some of the exile community's most infamousto that country. Strangely, the U.S. declined both12terrorists."offers to have Bosch, who had violated his parole,A CANF spokesman insisted that they did soextradited.19because trying a harder case could clear the way forAfter he was let go by the Costa Rican police,easier cases to be won.13 This is a convolutedBosch organized a meeting near Bonao, theexplanation, at best, which in no way changes theDominican Republic, in the summer of 1976, whichfact that CANF succeeded in setting free a convictedwas attended by the most dangerous anti-Castroterrorist.militants, including Luis Posada, Jose DionisioOver the years, many exile terrorist attacks haveSuarez and Ignacio and Guillermo Novo. There, analso been launched against Cuba. Cuban exilesumbrella group of exile terrorists was formed, theOrlando Bosch and Luis Posada Carriles, who areCommando of United Revolutionary organizationsregarded as heroes by extreme right-wing exiles (the(CORU).20 The Justice Department determined thatCity Commission of Miami declared a “Dr. OrlandoCORU orchestrated at least sixteen bombings,14Bosch Day” in 1983 ), were charged d in Venezuelaassassinations in thefor the October 6, 1976 Bosch later said of the Bonao meeting,UnitedStates,thebombing of a Cubana “Everything was planned there. I told themCaribbean, Central andairliner off Barbados, an act that we couldn’t just keep bombing anSouth America andof terrorism that resulted in embassy here and a police station there. We Spain, including thethe loss of 73 lives, many of had to start taking more serious actions.”1976 Cubana airlinertheminnocentyoungbombing21.15Cubans – including the entire Cuban fencing team.Bosch later said of the Bonao meeting,Two Venezuelans who deplaned after the first“Everything was planned there. I told them that weleg of the doomed flight, Freddy Lugo and Hernancouldn’t just keep bombing an embassy here and aRicardo, were arrested by Trinidad police. Ricardo,police station there. We had to start taking morewho worked for Posada's security agency, admittedserious actions.”22that he and Lugo planted the bombs on the plane andIn 1977 the House Select Committee onthat Bosch and Posada had masterminded the attackAssassinations questioned Bosch (who was by then(It should be noted that when Venezuelan policein a Venezuelan jail for the Cubana airlinerraided Posada's office they found a map ofbombing) because of, as the committee put it, “theWashington, DC which showed Orlando Letelier'sintensity and violence of his activities, which have16daily route to work).always been widely publicized.”23Prior to the Cubana airliner bombing, Bosch wasBosch told the committee that he and Frankthe leader of the Movimiento Insurreccional deSturgis, whom the committee identified as a “wellRecuperacion Revolucionaria (MIRR), an antiknown anti-Castro soldier of fortune,” hadCastro terrorist organization that was known tocooperated in at least 11 air strikes against Cuba, forconduct assassinations and bombings in the U.S. andwhich American mercenary pilots were paid at leastabroad.17 The MIRR also targeted foreign vessels 2000 per flight.24trading with Cuba, and in 1968, Bosch wasWhile Bosch was jailed in Venezuela for hisconvicted in the U.S. of firing a bazooka at a Polishinvolvement in the airliner bombing, then-Miamifreighter docked in the port of Miami. Bosch wasMayor Maurice Ferré—who is again running for thatalso convicted for threats made to the Mexican,office—went to visit him in 1983.25 After beingBritish and Spanish heads of state for trading withreleased from prison, Bosch returned to the U.S.Cuba.18illegally in 1988 and was finally taken into custodyfor his U.S. parole violation.3

Bosch attempted to gain asylum in the Unitedconspicuous political pressure, has let him out,States, and in 1989 the Justice Departmentwinning cheers from local politicians—andconsidered his case. Among the evidence itsquandering American credibility on issues ofconsidered was information linking Bosch to: moreterrorism.” 30than thirty “acts of sabotage and violence” in theIn 1992, under the first Bush administration,United States, Puerto Rico, Panama and Cuba;Orlando Bosch received an administrative pardon31planning the murder of two Cuban diplomats inand he now lives in Miami. When questioned aboutArgentina (who subsequently were kidnapped andthe 1976 bombing carried out by the terroristdisappeared); the bombing of the Mexican embassyorganization that he founded, Bosch declared, "youin Guatamala in 1976; and package bombs to Cubanhave to fight violence with violence. At times youembassies in Lima, Madrid, Ottawa and Buenoscannot avoid hurting innocent people." 32Aires (the Justice Department examined documentsIn 1985, Luis Posada Carriles, a CIA-trainedthat showed Bosch admitted this publicly).26Bay of Pigs veteran and explosives expert,The Justice Department also cited evidence that,“escaped” from prison in Venezuela by offeringwhile in prison, Bosch had ordered bombings ofprison officials 28,600. The Miami Herald reportedVenezuelan property (he called for this publicly in athat, “Posada’s friends broke him out of jail in aradio interview from prison) and had issued a lettercarefully planned plot, secretly spirited him acrossentitled “Cuban Terrorism”. It also found that fromthe Caribbean and took advantage of the clandestine1977-1984, Bosch had continued contact withcontra world to stash him in Central America.”33membersofThe MiamiFormerFloridaSenatorConnieMack,FloridaCORU and thatHeraldlaterduring this time Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, and Jeb Bushconfirmed that“headvocated all lobbied for Bosch’s release from INS custody. . . Posadahadacts of violencesurfacedinandsabotage.” The first Bush administration overruled its ownOliver North’s(Both the FBI and Justice Department by having Bosch released fromsecretcontrathe INS received prison and allowing him to remain in the country.operation at thebombthreatsIlopango airbasedemanding Bosch's release.)27in El Salvador, with the assistance of CIA operativeUnder the preponderance of evidence, theFelix Rodriguez (a.k.a. Max Gomez)—another BayJustice Department denied Bosch’s petition toof Pigs veteran—who was “a key figure in the Iranremain in the United States. The associate attorneycontra scandal with close ties to then Vice-Presidentgeneral, Joe D. Whitley stated in the decision that,Bush.”34“For 30 years Bosch has been resolute andRodriguez admitted that he harbored Posada atunwavering in his advocacy of terrorist violence . . .the request of a wealthy Miami resident—“an oldHe has repeatedly expressed and demonstrated afriend”—who he said had also financed Posada’swillingness to cause indiscriminate injury andescape from prison.35 Rodriguez refused to answer28death.”questions before the Senate about notations in OliverNevertheless, former Florida senator ConnieNorth’s notebooks that indicated a transfer ofMack, Florida Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, a 50,000 to Rodriguez from Jorge Mas Canosa (thestrident anti-Castroite, and Jeb Bush (who was herlate chairman and founder of the Cuban Americancampaign manager), all lobbied for Bosch’s releaseNational Foundation), also a Bay of Pigs veteran.36from INS custody. State senators, cityIn his autobiography, Rodriguez calls Mas—whocommissioners, mayors and many other civic leadersonce offered to pay for an attorney for Rodriguezin the Miami area vehemently protested the decision.during the congressional inquiry into the contraThe first Bush administration overruled its ownoperation—a “longtime friend."37Justice Department by having Bosch released fromFurthermore, three Cuban exile leaders in Miamiprison and allowing him to remain in the country. 29and two former members of CORU all told UnitedIn a July 20, 1990 editorial, The New York TimesPress International that it Mas who helped financewrote, “The release from jail of Orlando Bosch is aPosada’s escape.38 A federal law-enforcementstartling example of political justice. The Justiceofficial also acknowledged receiving reports ofDepartment, under no legal compulsion butMas’s involvement, but according to the The Miami4

Herald, would not comment further.39 The awardUnivision, initially confirmed that a CANFwinning journalist and congressional investigator,representative was present for the interview.4740Gaeton Fonzi, wrote “More than one past memberThe station later recanted when Orizondo saidas well as a present associate claim Mas talked aboutthe report had been false. According to The Miamiboth playing a role in raising the money to financeHerald, Orizondo would not comment, however, toPosada’s escape and in helping the fugitive get hisquestions such as, “Did one or more people from thejob with the illegal supply network.”41foundation facilitate the interview? AccompanyFonzi confirmed that a former CANF viceOrizondo to the site in the Caribbean? Remain in apresident, Jose Luis Rodriguez, acknowledged beingroom nearby? Did Orizondo travel to the interviewsolicited for and paying “his share” of Posada’saboard a foundation airplane?”48escape fund. Rodriguez even received one ofA definitive “no” would have cleared upPosada’s paintings—one of a palomino horsespeculation that CANF had any connection to eitherrunning free—as a remembrance.42Posada or to the reporter who recorded Posada’sPosada, who was in hiding in El Salvador for adenial.number of years, has publicly admitted toMeanwhile, The New York Times stuck by itsmasterminding the string of 1997 bombings ofstory, which was based on more than thirteen hourstourist hotels in Havana, which resulted in the deathwith Posada on tape and on over 100 sources—of an Italian tourist. When asked by The New Yorkincluding CIA and FBI documents and Posada’sTimes about the bombing that killed the Italianown autobiography.49 The Cuban American Nationaltourist, Posada remarked, "It is sad that someone isFoundation said it was “ninety-nine percent sure”dead, but we can't stop. That Italian was sitting inthat it would sue the newspaper,50 but it never did.the wrong place at the wrong time." Posada boasted,Posada is again in prison (this time in Panama),“I sleep like a baby."43one of four Cuban exiles accused of involvement inIn a taped interview with New York Timesa November 2000 assassination attempt againstreporters Anne Louise Bardach and Larry Rohter inFidel Castro during the Ibero-American Summit in1998, Posada stated that his activities were financedPanama. Also arrested were Guillermo Novo andby the late CANF chairman Jorge MasPedro Remón, both of Miami. The FBI consideredCanosa. Posada said that Mas controlled everythingthem both principal members of Omega 7,51 an antiand provided him with upwards ofCastro terrorist group active in New 200,000, often through other Luis Posada Carriles onJersey and New York, that a federalCuban exiles. “He never said ‘this is the 1997 Havana hotelprosecutor once called "one of thefrom the foundation,” recalled bombings he planned:most dangerous, most vicious andPosada. Rather, the money arrived "It is sad that someone is most feared terrorist groups in U.S.with the message, ‘this is for the dead, but we can't stop.history.''52church.’”44Novo was the founder of theThat Italian was sittingCANF denied the allegations,Cuban Nationalist Movement (a groupin the wrong place at theand at a press conference one daywhich included Omega 7 membersafter the story appeared in The New wrong time I sleep likeactive in New York and New Jersey)ababy.”York Times, it produced a tape inand was implicated, along with hiswhich Posada contradicted himselfbrother, Ignacio, in a 1964 bazookain an interview by Univision Communications, Inc.,attack on the United Nations during a speech bya Spanish language television network. In theErnesto “Che” Guevara. In 1976, the Novo brothersUnivision interview with Rafael Orizondo, Posadajoined the terrorist umbrella group CORU, whichstated that CANF had not financed his militantclaimed the credit for more than 50 bombings inoperations, and that he had not seen Jorge MasMiami, New York, Venezuela, Panama, Mexico and45Canosa in several years.Argentina.53 In 1979, Novo was convicted for hisThe London Observer wrote that, “When theinvolvement in the 1976 Letelier assassination infoundation produced the tape of the interview on theWashington, D.C. He was later acquitted on appealsame day it was conducted, it aroused suspicions ofbecause his confession was obtained by plantinga relationship between the foundation and Posada oranother convict in the cell with him.54 Novo went tobetween the foundation and the Miami televisionprison for lying to a federal grand jury during the46reporter.” AnneCorley,spokeswomanforLetelier investigation.555

In a bizarre public relations move, the CubanArmando Perez Roura, director of RadioAmerican National Foundation hired the NovoMambí, explained his defense of exiles who usebrothers—after they served out their prisonviolence: “Independently of the strategies forsentences—toworkonits“Informationstruggle, the defense of those who fight for theCommission.”56freedom of Cuba is an obligation of all exiles whenPedro Remón, who previously served time inthey are found to be in legal difficulties resultingprison for refusing to testify before a federal grandfrom their acts.”65jury about Omega 7 terrorist activities, wasRamon Saul Sanchez, leader of the Democracyconvicted for his involvement in the 1979 bombingMovement and former member of the terrorist groupof Cuba’s U.N. mission in New York City and forAlpha 66, also asked listeners on a weekly radiothe attempted assassination of Raul Roa Kouri,show on La Poderosa to contribute.66 Sanchez, who57Cuba’s former ambassador to the U.N. Remón wasserved 4 years in jail for refusing to testify about analso identified as the triggerman in the murders ofOmega 7 attack in New York City, considersCuba U.N. diplomat Felix García and moderateRemón—who plead guilty to participating in theCuban exile Eulalio José Negrín (Negrín—a memberNew York City bombing—a “friend.”67of the December 1978 “dialogo” with Castro whichSanchez told The Miami New Times this pastsucceeded in freeing 3600 political prisoners—wasJuly, “I cannot condemn somebody who is willing toshot to death in front of his young son in Union City,risk his or her life for the well-being of other people,New Jersey.58).59even if I disagree with the method they areThe fourth man, who entered Panama with falseemploying.”68 Sanchez also admitted he would notdocumentation, is Gaspar Jiménez, a Cuban exilecondemn anyone who landed in Cuba with weaponswho was indicted in the 1976 car bomb attack onto try to overthrow Fidel Castro.69Emilio Milian, a prominent radio commentator whoSantiago Alvarez, a Hialeah developer, has alsospoke out publicly against violence in Miami.60been raising money for the defense fund of the fourMilian survived the attack, but lostmen he calls “friends”.70ArmandoPerezRoura,both of his legs in it. Jiménez servedAlvarez denied allegations by thedirectorofRadioMambí,six years in a Mexican prison for theCuban government that he hadattempted kidnapping of Cuba’s Miami: “Independently ofanything to do with theconsul to Merida—the consul’s the strategies for struggle,assassination plot last year, butbodyguard was killed in the attempt.61 the defense of those whowould not comment on Cuba’sAccording to The Miami Herald, fight for the freedom ofclaim that he was involved in aMiami police have identified Jiménez Cuba is an obligation of all more recent attempted commandoas a driver and security guard for the exiles when they are foundmission by three Miami-Dademedical clinic owned by Alberto to be in legal difficultiesresidents.Hernández, a former CANF boardIn April, Ihosvani Suris de laresulting from their acts.”member (Hernández was the firstTorre, Santiago Padrón QuinteroCANF chairman after the death of Jorge Mas Canosaand Maximo Padrera Valdés (also known in Miamiin 1997). “This is something invented by Castro,”as Máximo Robaina) landed on the island with AKHernández has said. "As far as I'm concerned, he's a47 assault rifles, an M-3 carbine rifle with a silencer,nice person, good family man with grandchildren.”62and three semi-automatic Makarov pistols.71 ThePanamanian officials found explosives in the carthree men, linked to the terrorist group Alpha 66, arerented by the four men. In January, The Miamiviewed by Andrés Nazario Sargén, the leader ofHerald reported that Posada had admitted toAlpha 66, as “patriots”. He regretted that they hadinvestigators that he was in Panama to kill Castro.not been able to link up with Alpha 66 groups inThe plan, he told investigators, was to fill a car withmountains and complete sabotage missions—such asexplosives and detonate them as Castro’s motorcade“to burn down tourist locations.” 72passed by.63The Cuban government released a tapedOn June 23 and 24of this year, two stridentlyconversation between Suris and a man they say isanti-Castro Miami radio stations known for incitingAlvarez. On the tape, Suris asks, “The other day,protests, Radio Mambi WAQI-AM and La Poderosawhen you told me about the Tropicana [a popularWWFE-AM, held on-the-air fundraisers for the fourtourist nightclub], do you want me to do something64detainees’ defense.there?'' Surís asks.6

The man the Cuban government says is Alvarezwas president of the Bay of Pigs veterans’replies: If you want to do that, so much the better.association.77Makes no difference to me.''Balmaseda, herself a Cuban American, deploresAlvarez did not deny the charges. “I cannotthe fact that so many civic leaders and others incomment on that right now. If I do say something, itMiami see Hernandez as “some kind of wronglywill be on a more opportune moment. When I canjailed exile patriot, instead of for the coward and theanalyze everything, I will have something to say.”killer that he is.”78Alvarez, a Bay of Pigs veteran, admitted he has aShe notes that over the years, various city“certain responsibility” for the commando missioncommissioners, state legislators, local mayors andbut would not comment hen pressed as to whether Alvarez was aCommissioners Javier Souto (then a state legislator)member of the CANF, executive director Joe Garciaand Tomas Regalado (then a radio commentator whoreplied that he didn’t know Alvarez, and that, “weheaded a 6,000-letter drive on Hernandez’ behalf)—have thousands of members.” Garcia did offer thathave all lobbied for Hernandez’ early release. IleanaAlvarez “is not a high-ranking member or director.”Ros-Lehtinen and Dexter Lehtinen wrote letters toGarcia told the Miami New Times that CANF wasthen-governor Bob Graham, appealing to his “highnot contributing to Alvarez’s defense fund, butsense of compassion for the plight of antiadmitted that some Foundation members may beCommunists.”7974contributing privately.Hernandez’s “apologists” still haven’t given up,Another illustrative example of the continuingthough, Balmaseda points out. In March, memberssupport for terrorism among hard-liners in Miamiof the Presidio Politico Historico Cubano announcedcomes from Pulitzer Prize-winning Miami Heraldon their weekly radio show on Radio Mambio-710columnist Liz Balmaseda,AM that they are lobbying“The record is clear andwho condemns a renewedGovernor Jeb Bush for his earlydocumentation plentiful:campaign in Miami to getrelease.80 “It never ceases e me,” writes Balmaseda,up;politicaldissidentsHernandez, whom she calls “a“how a character so dangerousassassinated; businesses bombed; commands such civic support.”classicCubanterroristcultural institutions and homesplucked out of Miami’s most“Those who rally aroundviolent, bomb-ridden years.”75Valentin Hernandez rely on ourdestroyed. Under the guise ofHernandez was part of thecommunity’s amnesia and ourdemocracy and behind two flagsterrorist group called theweakness for revisionists,” shetoo often desecrated for selfPragmatistas, “militant antiwrites. The facts, she says,righteous reasons, a fearful andCommunists,” according to“reveal Hernandez and those whointolerant environment has beenBalmaseda, “who filled theircoddle him for what they are—nurtured.”-Francisco Arucawar coffers by committingthe accomplices of terror.”81extortions and brutal robberies of well-to-doAll of these events provide only a few snapshotsexiles.”76of the terrorism and support for terrorism that hasIn 1973, Hernandez was charged withpervaded Miami for 40 years, while the FBI and theaggravated assault on Luciano Nieves, an outspokenCIA have done little or nothing to eradicate theexile who favored an opening to Cuba. On Februaryproblem. There have been myriad bombs, death21, 1975, outside the former Variety Children’sthreats, murders, and other sordid attacks all in theHospital, Hernandez—who was still a fugitive andname of freedom, none of them taking into accountwas stalking Nieves—pumped half a dozen bulletsthe innocent lives that were “in the wrong place atinto his victim’s chest. From his hospital bed,the wrong time,” as Luis Posada Carrile

Keeping things in perspective: Cuba and the question of international terrorism “For almost 40 years, we have isolated Cuba on the assumption that the tiny i sland is a center of terrorism in the hemisphere, and year after year we gain new evidence that it is the U.S. that has terror