Transcription

EndNotes93 EndNotesTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002

94 EndNotesTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002

A General Note on the Calculation of Rates:Many indicators in The Broward Benchmarks arerates, calculated by dividing the number ofoccurrences of a particular event by thepopulation subject to those events. Forexample, 2.1.1(a) reports the number of indexcrimes per 100,000 residents. Similarly, 2.5.1reports the number of juvenile arrests forviolent crimes per 100,000 children ages 10-17.In previous editions of The Broward Benchmarks,both the absolute number of occurrences andthe rates were reported exactly as published bythe cited sources. In this edition, a newapproach has been adopted. The 2000 Censusresulted in an increase of more than 100,000residents in Broward County when comparedwith the estimates made prior to the census, adifference of 6.5%, compared to a difference ofonly 1.8% for the State of Florida as a whole.This means that over the last decade, thecounty’s population was systematicallyunderestimated compared to that of the Stateand other counties. This, in turn, causedpreviously published population-based ratessuch as the crime rate to be higher than theywere in fact. The Florida Legislature’s Office ofEconomic and Demographic Research – EDR(www.state.fl.us/edr), responsible for officialestimates and projections of the population, reestimated the annual population for the Stateand each county, for each quarter (January 1,April 1, July 1 and October 1) during the pastdecade, offering the revised data by age, genderand race (White, Non-White and Total). Theserevised population estimates, based in August2002, have been used to update the ratesthroughout this document. In each case, thepopulation estimate used corresponds to thequarter that represents the mid-point of thereporting period. For example, for the Statefiscal year, which goes from October toSeptember, the April 1 population estimate isTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002used, whereas the July 1 estimate is used forcalendar year data. All rates have beenrecalculated using the originally published datafor the number of occurrences, but dividing bythe revised population estimates. Since manyagencies have chosen not to publish revisedrates from past years, the rates included in thispublication may now be different from thosethat are reported elsewhere, including inofficial documents of the source agencies.1.1Quality of Life1.1.1 Broward County as a place to live1.1.2 Change in the quality of lifeMeasurement: People's perception of BrowardCounty as a place to live is measured bytelephone survey of a statistically valid sampleof 2,400 Broward County adults age 18 andolder. Specifically, the survey asks, “Overall,how would you rate Broward County as a placeto live as: Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair orPoor?” and “During the time that you havelived in Broward County, would you say thatthe quality of life here has improved, stayedabout the same, or grown worse?” Thesampling error for the survey is 2.2%.Explanation: It is important to know not onlythe county’s physical, social and economicconditions, but also how people perceiveBroward County as a place to live.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q107/Q108,1999/2000 - Q95/Q96, 2002 - Q117/Q118),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.Florida data source: Florida InternationalUniversity, School of Journalism and MassCommunication, Institute for Public OpinionResearch, The FIU/Florida Poll(www.fiu.edu/org/ipor/IPORProj.htm). Thesampling error for this survey is 3%.1.2Population1.2.1 Population1.2.2 Population growthMeasurement: Broward County's population isthe number of people who permanently residein the County. The decennial U.S. Census is thesource of this information for 2000. Populationestimates for non-decennial years are preparedthrough the Consensus Estimating Conferences,conducted by The Florida Legislature’s Officeof Economic and Demographic Research, andpublished by the Bureau of Economic andBusiness Research at the University of Florida.Annual population growth is calculated as (1)the population in the given year minus thepopulation the previous year, divided by (2) thepopulation the previous year.Explanation: Population growth has asignificant effect on the livability ofcommunities, the health of the environment,and the ability of government to provideschools, roads and other services to its citizens.Data source: University of Florida, Bureau ofEconomic and Business Research, FloridaEstimates of Population (annual). The data can beobtained online from The Florida Legislature’sOffice of Economic and Demographic Research,at www.state.fl.us/edr/population.htm.Our Families and Communities – ENDNOTES95

1.3People in Poverty1.3.1 People in poverty1.3.2 People in poverty by race/ethnicity1.3.3 People in poverty by genderMeasurement: People in poverty are those inhouseholds with an income below 100% of thefederal poverty level. For calendar year 1999, afamily of four was below the poverty level if itshousehold income was 17,029 per year or less.The most complete information on poverty isavailable from the decennial U.S. Census andapplies only to the non-institutionalized,civilian population. Census poverty estimatesare available from the 1990 Census (for calendaryear 1989) and the 2000 Census (for calendaryear 1999), at all levels of geography down tothe census block group (states, counties, cities,census tracts). In addition, Broward County isa pilot site for implementation of the CensusBureau’s annual American Community Survey(ACS), which is planned to replace the longform of the decennial census. Annual summaryresults similar to those from the 2000 Censusare available for Broward County and its 10largest municipalities for 2000 and 2001.Comparable data is available for the nation,and all states, counties and places with aminimum population of 250,000, including theState of Florida, from the ACS-basedSupplementary Survey (2000 and 2001).Explanation: Poverty is linked to loweducational attainment, health problems, crime,and other conditions that weaken families andcommunities.Data sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990Census of Population and Housing (STF3A),Tables P118 and P119; 2000 Census of Populationand Housing (Summary File 3), Tables P159A-H(for each racial and ethnic group) and PCT49;and 2001 American Community Survey, Tables96P114 and P115A-J (for each racial and ethnicgroup); all tables are available online athttp://factfinder.census.gov.1.4Single Parent Families1.4.1 Single parent familiesMeasurement: Single parent families are maleor female-headed households with no spousepresent and with unmarried sons, daughters,stepchildren or adopted children under age 18living in the home. Single parents may bedivorced, separated, widowed or nevermarried. Data are presented by number offamilies with own children within type offamily household and by number of children inhouseholds by householder type.Explanation: Single mothers and fathers oftenhave difficulty supporting a family, running ahousehold and raising children alone.Data sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990Census of Population and Housing (STF3A),Tables P13, P19 and P23; 2000 Census(Summary File 3), Tables P8, P10 and P16; and2001 American Community Survey, Tables P4,P11 and P28; all tables are available online athttp://factfinder.census.gov.1.5Children in Disadvantaged Families1.5.1 Births to unwed mothersMeasurement: The marital status of a mother isself-reported on the child's birth certificate.Births include only live births to BrowardCounty residents. Although the majority ofteenagers bearing children in Florida areunwed mothers, the majority of unwed mothersin the state are not teenagers.Our Families and Communities – ENDNOTESExplanation: Single mothers are more likelythan two-parent families or single fathers tolive in poverty. Unwed teen mothers are lesslikely to obtain adequate prenatal care, morelikely to receive welfare and more likely to havechildren with developmental problems,delinquent behavior or poor schoolachievement.Data source: Florida Department of Health,Public Health Indicators Data System (PHIDS),available online atwww9.myflorida.com/planning eval/phstats/index.html.1.5.2 Births to undereducated mothersMeasurement: Undereducated mothers aredefined as mothers who have not completedthe 12th grade. The highest grade completedby the mother is self-reported on the child'sbirth certificate.Explanation: Young women who becomemothers before they finish high school are lesslikely than their peers to get their diploma orearn enough income to support their families.Data source: This data no longer is availableon the website of the Florida Department ofHealth, Office of Planning, Evaluation and DataAnalysis.1.5.3 Births to families at risk of poverty andinstabilityMeasurement: Births to high-risk families arebabies born to mothers with all of the followingcharacteristics: 1) not married, 2) under age 20when their first child was born and 3) less than12 years of education. Information is selfreported by the mother on the child’s birthcertificate.Explanation: Families with thesedisadvantages have a greater risk of instabilityand of becoming dependent on publicassistance.THE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002

Data sources: This data no longer is availableon the website of the Florida Department ofHealth, Office of Planning, Evaluation and DataAnalysis.1.5.4 Families on welfareMeasurement: The Work and Gain EconomicSelf-sufficiency (WAGES) legislation passed bythe Florida Legislature in 1995, and the federalPersonal Responsibility and Work OpportunityAct of 1996, which created the TemporaryAssistance to Needy Families (TANF) blockgrant, led to a dramatic reduction in thenumber of families enrolled in “welfare” in thelate 1990s. The recent economic downturn hascontributed to a rise in the number of familiesenrolled. Annual TANF and food stampenrollments are measured as of July 31 of eachyear.Explanation: The number of families receivingcash assistance and/or food stamps, and thenumber of dependents in those households, isan indicator of the number of families whoseearnings are insufficient to meet their basicneeds.Data source: Florida Department of Childrenand Families, District 10, Economic SelfSufficiency (ESS) Data Warehouse; reports byspecial query.1.6Children in Poverty1.6.1 Children in povertyMeasurement: Children in poverty are definedas children living in families with an incomebelow 100% of the federal poverty level. Forcalendar year 1999, a family of four was belowthe poverty level if its household income was 17,029 per year or less. The U.S. Bureau of theCensus defines children as people under theTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002age of 18 who are related to the head ofhousehold by birth, marriage or adoption.Specifically, these children would include sonsand daughters, stepchildren, adopted childrenand all other children related to thehouseholder, except a spouse. Foster childrenare excluded. Information is collected by thedecennial Census (applies only to the noninstitutionalized, civilian population), and bythe annual American Community Survey.Explanation: Poverty is linked to loweducational attainment, health problems, crime,and other conditions that weaken families andcommunities.Data sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990Census of Population and Housing (STF3A), TableP118; 2000 Census of Population and Housing(Summary File 3), Table P87; and 2001 AmericanCommunity Survey, Table P114; all tables areavailable online at http://factfinder.census.gov.1.7Child Care1.7.1 Child care for children in povertyMeasurement: The percentage of childrenunder 12 years of age below 100% of theFederal Poverty Level that were actually“served” in the calendar year with federal orstate funds (a child enrolled with a providerand funds disbursed to the provider for thechild). The number of children in povertyserved excludes Pre-K, HeadStart, and anyelementary public school sites. The totalnumber of children in poverty is taken from theAmerican Community Survey (ACS).Broward data source: Family Central, Inc., StateEnhanced Field System (EFS) Database(obtained via query by Family Centralpersonnel), North Lauderdale, Florida; 2000American Community Survey, Table P114; and2001 American Community Survey, Table P114;ACS tables are available online athttp://factfinder.census.gov.1.7.2 Child care waiting listMeasurement: Subsidized childcare providescare and supervision primarily for low-incomechildren while their parents are at work or intraining. Care is fully or partially reimbursedwith state or federal funding. The annualmonthly average waiting list number wascomputed for children below 100% of theFederal Poverty Level, and for all childrenwaiting for some type of publicly-subsidizedcare, by using the monthly waiting list numbersavailable at www.flsrs.com.Explanation: Low-income parents oftenneed help paying for child care in order toget job training and employment.Data source: Florida Partnership for SchoolReadiness Statewide Reporting System(www.flsrs.com), which uses data from theState Enhanced Field System (EFS) Database.1.7.3 Children of working parentsMeasurement: Every public elementary schoolin Broward County offers after school care atthe school sites (a few exceptions have carevery close to the school site). The number ofchildren 0-12 enrolled in after-school care atelementary public school sites includes Pre-Kand HeadStart, and is based on an Octobersurvey.Explanation: Children need to be cared for in asafe, healthy, and caring place while theirparents are at work.Broward data source: Broward County PublicSchools.Our Families and Communities – ENDNOTES97

1.8Children Living Away From Their Families1.8.1 Children in foster careMeasurement: The total number of children inemergency shelter, independent living,residential group care and foster careplacement is an unduplicated count as of June30 each year for the State Fiscal Years. Fostercare is defined as temporary care provided tochildren who are removed from their familiesand placed in state custody because ofdangerous or harmful home situations. Postplacement supervision is the supervision byfoster care workers of a child in the custody of aguardian or who has been returned to theirhome with the stipulation that they be closelysupervised. Emergency shelter care is shortterm temporary care (30 days or less). Themost common reasons for foster and sheltercare placement are neglect, abuse, or inability tocontrol teenagers. Care is provided in licensedfoster families or boarding homes, grouphomes, agency boarding homes, childcareinstitutions or any combination of thesearrangements (Section 39.01(24), FloridaStatutes). Official population estimates by ageare used to calculate the rate per 100,000children under the age of 18.Explanation: A stable family life is critical tochildren's mental, social and emotionaldevelopment.Data sources: Florida Department of Childrenand Families, District 10, Family SafetyManagement Plan Report (Emergency sheltercare “Total Emergency Shelter (Population)”under “Children in Emergency Shelter Care.”Foster care, independent living or residentialgroup care “Total In Care (Budget)” under“Board Payment,” as of June 30); FloridaLegislature, Office of Economic andDemographic Research, annual population98estimates by age, gender and race for July 1(August 2002) - seewww.state.fl.us/edr/population.htm.1.8.2 Outcome of foster careMeasurement: Placement in a safe andpermanent home is the ideal goal for foster carechildren. This arrangement may includereunification with the child's family, adoption,living with relatives or placement in anotherpermanent home. For older children, it maymean living independently or living with afoster family until they are 18 years old. Asuccessful outcome for a child/youth insupervision is reunification, transfer toadoption or independent living with selfsupport skills. A successful outcome for achild/ youth in foster care is reunification withtheir family, eligibility for adoption, placementwith a relative or guardian, or independentliving with self-support skills. The outcomedata presented here is based on the terminationstatus of children leaving the foster care systemduring the specified years.Explanation: A stable family life is critical tochildren's mental, social and emotionaldevelopment.Data source: Special query of the IntegratedChild Welfare Services Information Systems(ICWSIS), housed at the Florida Department ofChildren and Families, District 10, Division ofFamily Safety.1.8.3 Length of stay in foster careMeasurement: The data presented is theaverage length of stay for children placed infoster care. The State goal is for children toleave out-of-home care for permanentplacement within 12 months.Explanation: A stable family life is critical tochildren's mental, social and emotionaldevelopment.Our Families and Communities – ENDNOTESData source: Special query of the IntegratedChild Welfare Services Information Systems(ICWSIS), housed at the Florida Department ofChildren and Families, District 10, Division ofFamily Safety.1.9Runaways1.9.1 Runaway childrenMeasurement: Runaways are defined aschildren who run away from their parents orlegal guardians without permission or arebanished from home because their parents findthem hostile or uncontrollable. The FloridaDepartment of Law Enforcement (FDLE),Uniform Crime Reports, has the number ofarrests of runaway children, by county, from1980 through 1987. FDLE has statewidenumbers only of runaway children from 1989through the present. They have eliminated thehistorical database that had this data by countydue to errors/inaccuracies. The Departmenthas recently changed their reporting andcomputing system and no longer has therunaway children data available that has beenused in recent years. FDLE’s MissingChildren’s Clearinghouse is now creating anew system to track the runaway children ineach county of Florida. This new reportingsystem began collecting data as of January 1,1998. Prior to 1994, runaway data wasmaintained by the Florida Network forChildren and Youth. During 1993/94 they alsoeliminated their historical database due toerrors and inaccuracies.Explanation: Runaways are an indication offamily problems with which children or parentsare unable to cope.Data source: Florida Department of LawEnforcement.THE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002

1.10Homelessness1.10.1 Homeless people1.10.2 Newly vs. chronically homeless1.10.3 Homeless familiesMeasurement: The homeless are people who donot have a fixed regular and nighttimeresidence. Homeless families are defined as acouple with children, a single parent withchildren, or a married couple without children.The number of homeless people and families inFlorida is estimated by 1,500 local agenciesproviding shelter, food and other assistance tothe homeless. Estimates are based on thenumber of homeless people served by theseagencies and, in some cases, on street countsconducted by agency staff. Information iscollected from local agencies by mail survey.Estimates for homelessness in Florida, asreported in November 1996, were: Total homeless 57,850; 32% werefamilies; 53% were single males; 15% weresingle females; 63% were new homeless; 37% were chronichomeless; 72% were state residents; 28% were fromout of state; 43% had alcohol or drug abuse problems;24% had mental illness; 23% had mentalillness or substance abuse problems; 50%had health problems; 48% were white; 33% were black; 10% wereHispanic; 9% were other race/ethnicity; 26% were vets; 6% were elderly; 7% werefarm workers; 19% were disabled; 11% hadHIV/AIDS. Homelessness was increasing in Florida ata rate of 12% per year.The demographics of the statewide estimatesare included for information only and readersTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002are cautioned about applying these percentagesto the Broward data. Homeless people, by theirvery nature, are hard to find and count. Themost recent survey in Broward County wascompleted February 14-24, 2000. All homelesspeople that could be found were interviewed,and a multiplier of three was then applied,following standard practice around thecountry. The survey is repeated every 2 years.Explanation: People who are homeless lackshelter, food and the basic necessities of life.Broward data source: Broward Coalition onthe Homeless.Florida data source: Department of Childrenand Families, Benefit Recovery and SpecialPrograms, Economic Services Program Office.1.11Self-Sufficiency of the Elderly1.11.1 Elders with mobility limitationsMeasurement: The percentage of elderly peoplewith mobility limitations is measured bytelephone survey of a statistically valid sampleof 2,400 Broward County residents age 18 andolder. Specifically, the survey asks respondentsage 70 and older, “Because of any impairmentor health problem, do you need the help ofother persons with your routine needs, such aseveryday household chores, doing necessarybusiness, shopping, or getting around for otherpurposes?” Possible responses are “yes” and“no.”Explanation: Elders can live a better quality oflife if they have the ability to take care ofthemselves and live self-sufficiently.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q95, 1999/2000 - Q75,2002 - Q72),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.1.11.2 Elders with self-care limitationsMeasurement: The percentage of elderly peoplewith self-care limitations is measured bytelephone survey of a statistically valid sampleof 2,400 Broward County residents age 18 andolder. Specifically, the survey asks respondentsage 70 and older, “Because of any impairmentor health problem, do you need the help ofother persons with your personal care needs,such as eating, bathing, dressing, or gettingaround the house?” Possible responses are“yes” and “no.”Explanation: Elders can live a better qualitylife if they have the ability to take care ofthemselves and live self-sufficiently.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q94, 1999/2000 - Q74,2002 - Q71),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.1.11.3 Elders in povertyMeasurement: Elders in poverty are thoseliving in households with an income below100% of the federal poverty level. Informationis collected by the decennial Census (appliesonly to the non-institutionalized, civilianpopulation), and by the annual AmericanCommunity Survey (only in Broward Countyuntil 2003).Explanation: Elders in poverty often have poornutrition, health problems, and substandardliving conditions.Data sources: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990Census of Population and Housing (STF3A), TableP118; 2000 Census of Population and Housing(Summary File 3), Table P87; and 2001 AmericanOur Families and Communities – ENDNOTES99

Community Survey, Table P114; all tables areavailable online at http://factfinder.census.gov.1.12People with Disabilities1.12.1 Work limitationsMeasurement: The percentage of non-elderlyadults with job limitations is measured bytelephone survey of a statistically valid sampleof 2,400 Broward County residents age 18 andolder. Specifically, the survey asksrespondents, “Does any impairment or healthproblem now keep you from working at a jobor business?” Possible responses are “yes” and“no.” This question is asked of respondents ifthey indicated that, for most of the past 12months, they were working at a job or business,as opposed to keeping house, going to school ordoing something else. In 1997 and 1999/2000this question was asked only of respondentsbetween the ages of 18 and 69.Explanation: Disabilities can limit people’sability to work, socialize, and take care of theirdaily needs within and outside the home.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q85, 1999/2000 - Q69,2002 - Q69),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.1.12.2 Work limitationsMeasurement: The percentage of non-elderlyadults with work limitations is measured bytelephone survey of a statistically valid sampleof 2,400 Broward County residents age 18 andolder. Specifically, the survey asksrespondents, “Are you limited in the kind oramount of work you can do because of anyimpairment or health problem?” Possible100responses are “yes” and “no.” This question isasked of respondents if they indicated that, formost of the past 12 months, they were workingat a job or business, as opposed to keepinghouse, going to school or doing something else.In 1997 and 1999/2000, this question was askedonly of respondents between the ages of 18 and69.Explanation: Disabilities can limit people’sability to work, socialize, and take care of theirdaily needs within and outside the home.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q86, 1999/2000 - Q70,2002 - Q70),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.1.12.3 Communication disabilities1.12.4 Physical disabilitiesMeasurement: The percentage of people withcommunication and physical disabilities ismeasured by telephone survey of a statisticallyvalid sample of 2,400 Broward Countyresidents age 18 and older. Specifically, thesurvey asks, “Would you please tell me howmany persons in this household are: (a) hard ofhearing?, (b) deaf?, (c) speech impaired?, (d)blind?, (e) have a physical disability requiringassistance in walking or moving around?”Explanation: Disabilities can limit people’sability to work, socialize, and take care of theirdaily needs within and outside the home.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q25 to Q29,1999/2000 - Q25 to Q30, 2002 - Q25 to Q30),www.sfrpc.com/ccb/prchome.htm.Our Families and Communities – ENDNOTES1.13Life in Communities1.13.1 People who are satisfied with theircommunitiesMeasurement: People’s satisfaction with theircommunity is measured by a telephone surveyof a statistically valid sample of 2,400 BrowardCounty adults age 18 and older. The wordingof the question changed in each of the threesurveys. In 1997, the survey asked, “Overall,how satisfied are you with the community inwhich you live?” Possible responses are verysatisfied, somewhat satisfied or not satisfied. In1999/2000, the survey asked, “Overall, wouldyou rate the local community in which you liveas:?” Possible responses include excellent, verygood, good, fair and poor. In 2002, the surveyasked, “Overall, would you rate yourneighborhood as a place to live as:?” Possibleresponses are the same as in 1999/2000. Ineach survey, the sampling error is 2.2%.Explanation: It is important to know not onlythe state's physical, social and economicconditions, but also how people perceive theircommunities as places to live.Broward data source: Quality of LifeAssessments of Broward County, Florida, byProfessional Research Consultants, Inc.,Omaha, Nebraska (1997 - Q110, 1999/2000 Q98, 2002 - .1 Affordability of housingMeasurement: Federal and State housingprograms define affordable housing as costingno more than 30% of household income formonthly rent or mortgage payments, insurance,and utilities. Standard census tabulationsTHE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002

present estimates of renter and ownerhouseholds with a “cost burden” (spendingmore than 30% for housing) for all householdsand for specified dollar income ranges.However, in order to meet the needs of the USDepartment of Housing and UrbanDevelopment for program-defined familyincome ranges, to support the elaboration ofComprehensive Housing AffordabilityStrategies (CHAS) by local governments,special tabulations of the 1990 Census wereprepared. This information is providedseparately for renters and owners, for lowincome households (20% or more below themedian county household income) and verylow-income households (50% or more belowthe median county household income).Explanation: Affordable, quality housing is abasic necessity of life.Data source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1990Census of Population and Housing, Special CHASTabulations (CD-ROM); 1990 Census ofPopulation and Housing (STF3A), Tables H51 andH60; 2000 Census of Population and Housing(Summary File 3), Tables H69 and H94; and2001 American Community Survey, Tables H69and H90; all tables are available online athttp://factfinder.census.gov.1.14.2 Quality of housingMeasurement: Since direct inspection ofoccupied housing is not feasible, housingquality is measured based on indicators of (1)overcrowding, (2) adequacy of plumbingfacilities, (3) adequacy of kitchen facilities, and(4) the age of the structure. Information isobtained from the U.S. Department of Housingand Urban Development (HUD) for the firstthree indicators and from the U.S. Census forthe fourth indicator. Overcrowding is definedas more than one person per room, includingliving rooms, dining rooms, kitchens,THE BROWARD BENCHMARKS 2002bedrooms, finished recreation rooms, lodgers'rooms and enclosed porches suitable for yearround use. Complete plumbing facilitiesinclude (1) hot and cold piped water; (2) a flushtoilet; and (3) a bathtub or shower. Completekitchen facilities include (1) an installed sinkwith piped water; (2) a range, cook top,convection or microwave oven or cookstove;and (3) a refrigerator, all located within thesame structure. Substandard housing ismeasured as the number of housing units built50 or more years ago. Although older housingunits are not necessarily substandard, thisindicator has been used as a proxy for trackingtrends in substandard housing over time. TheShimberg Center for Affordable Housing at theUniversity of Florida is developing a bettermeasure of substandard housing.Explanation: Affordable, qual

Data source: Florida Department of Children and Families, District 10, Economic Self-Sufficiency (ESS) Data Warehouse; reports by special query. 1.6 Children in Poverty 1.6.1 Children in poverty Measurement: Children in poverty are defined as children living in families wi