The Vietnam Consumer SurveyAn accelerating momentumJanuary 2020

Foreword03An accelerating momentum04The Vietnam Consumer Survey071. Consumer sentiment092. Consumer awareness133. Purchasing preferences164. Purchasing behaviours225. Payment preferences296. Post-purchase loyalty31Looking ahead33Contact us35

ForewordAfter three decades of economic reform, Vietnam has transformed into one of the most dynamic emergingmarkets in the Southeast Asia region. This momentum looks set to accelerate in the near-term, as its economycontinues to show fundamental strength on the back of strong export demand, and a concerted nationwide pushfor digital transformation.In this first edition of the Vietnam Consumer Survey, we explore some of the latest consumer behaviour patternsemerging from the results of our survey conducted in the second half of 2019 across 1,000 respondents throughface-to-face interviews in four cities: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho, and Da Nang.We have structured this report in a sequential manner to trace the consumers’ journey from pre-consumptionto consumption, and finally post-consumption. While it is worthwhile noting that the consumer’s journey maynot always follow this linear pattern, what we endeavour to do in this report is to provide you with a more holisticunderstanding of some of the drivers and motivations behind the Vietnamese consumer’s behaviours.We will begin this journey in the pre-consumption phase, where we take stock of the overall consumer sentiment,and their outlook of the future, before examining their preferred communication channels, and purchasingpreferences. What we observed was that the Vietnamese consumer’s media consumption diet spans across afairly diverse set of offline and online channels, and that quality is a key consideration underpinning many of thepurchasing decisions that they make.In the consumption phase, we take a look at some of the consumer’s purchasing and payment behaviours. Here,we found that competition in Modern Trade channels is beginning to heat up, even as Traditional Trade channelscontinue to dominate the retail landscape. We also examine the nascent e-commerce and digital paymentmarkets, and take a look at some of the key highlights of their evolution.Finally, in the post-consumption phase, we delve into loyalty programs, and elaborate on the rise of digitalaggregator platforms that have emerged as an alternative to conventional, store-specific programs.We hope that this report will provide you with some insights into the Vietnamese consumer’s journey, and theconsiderations that you will need to make to leverage the market’s accelerating momentum.Pua Wee MengConsumer Industry LeaderDeloitte Southeast Asia03

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumAn accelerating momentumAn open economy with vibrant trade activity, Vietnamis expected to emerge as the second fastest-growingeconomy in Southeast Asia.Economic overviewSince the implementation of its open-door policy, known as the Doi Moi reform, in 1986, Vietnam’s economicgrowth has been nothing short of remarkable. Today, it is one of the most dynamic emerging economies in theSoutheast Asia region.In 2018, the size of Vietnam’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached USD 241 billion, representing a 1.3 timesincrease from 2015, as its economy expanded at a rate of 7.0%, far exceeding the target of 6.7% set by itsgovernment (see Figure 1). With an average income per capita of approximately USD 2,600 per person per year1,Vietnam has also managed to successfully propel itself to middle-income status.Figure 1: Vietnam’s GDP growth rates and inflation rates (2008-2018)Looking ahead, Vietnam’s economy is expected to continue to show fundamental strength, on the back of steadyForeign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows, robust domestic demand, as well as its export-oriented manufacturing andrising tourism sectors. For 2019, Vietnam is expected to emerge as the second fastest-growing economy in SoutheastAsia, with an estimated economic growth rate of 6.8%2 (see Figure 2).19.9%18.6%GDP growth rateInflation rate11.8%6.9%5.7%5.4%6.4%6.2%6.8% 6.1%5.4% 8%6.8%7.1%4.0%3.5%0.6%2015201620172018Source: General Statistics Office1 “Deputy PM gives positive forecast for economic growth in 2019”. The Voice of Vietnam. 2 May 2019. ov2 “Asian Development Outlook 2019: Strengthening disaster resilience”. Asian Development Bank. April 2019. -outlook-2019-strengthening-disaster-resilience04

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumFigure 2: Estimated GDP growth rates for Southeast Asian economies7.0%6.8%6.6%6.5%6.4%Regional average: 4.9%4.5%3.9%2.6%1.0%CambodiaVietnamMyanmarLao e: Asian Development BankAn open economyOverall, Vietnam is an open economy with vibrant trade activity, with its trade to GDP ratio reaching nearly 200%in 20183. Indeed, consistently high FDI inflows have been a key pillar of Vietnam’s economic growth: in the first ninemonths of 2019, foreign investors collectively invested about USD 26.1 billion in Vietnam’s economy4.Currently, Vietnam’s strong export demand is supported by rising costs in China, which are forcing manufacturersto look for alternative destinations in Asia to locate their factories. In line with this, its manufacturing andprocessing sectors have attracted the greatest amount of foreign investments at about USD 18 billion in the firstnine months of 2019.At the same time, however, there are also encouraging signs that Vietnam is beginning to move up themanufacturing value chain: its electronic exports, for example, are now growing at a faster rate than its textilesexports5. Its science and technology sector has also witnessed a sharp surge in foreign investments, and isnow the third largest sector in terms of FDI, as an increasing number of global high-technology manufacturingbusinesses set up or expand their operations in Vietnam.Digital transformation across sectorsIn its bid to transform Vietnam into a modern and industrialised economy by 2045, the government is currentlyworking on a series of regulations to encourage all sectors to harness the potential of digital transformation,with the ultimate objectives of growing Vietnam’s digital economy at a rate of 20% annually, increasing workplaceproductivity by 8-10% per year, as well as becoming one of the top 20 most competitive economies in the worldand one of the top three most competitive Southeast Asian economies6.These are ambitious goals: a 2018 survey by its Ministry of Industry and Trade showed that while up to 82% ofbusinesses and the majority of its industries are aware of digital transformation, their digital transformation effortsremain at an infancy stage. Nevertheless, the government’s new vision is recognition that digital transformation isinevitable, and not only crucial for Vietnam to leapfrog the economic development cycle7, but also critical for thesustainability of its overall economy.3 “World Bank forecasts Vietnam’s 2019 growth at 6.6 %”. Viet Nam News. 27 April 2019. Bdq6W35gFCQjtcr.994 “FDI attraction in 9 months of 2019”. Foreign investment information website. 30 September 2019. h-thu-hut-dau-tu-nuoc-ngoai-9-thang-nam-20195 “Economic growth in 2019 may exceed the plan?”. VGP News. 14 July 2019. 2019-co-thevuot-ke-hoach/370653.vgp6 “Digital transformation receiving boost”. Vietnam Economic Times. 9 August 2019. altransformation-receiving-boost7 “Vietnamese businesses are just getting started with digital transformation”. Banking Magazine. 18 July 2019. i-nhap-cuoc-voi-chuyen-doi-so-90119.html05

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumHigh consumer confidenceIn light of the rapid economic growth, Vietnam’s consumers also appear to be optimistic: its Consumer ConfidenceIndex, an indicator of the consumer’s sentiment about the economy, has been on the rise since 2014 (see Figure4)8. This optimism has been reflected in the growth of its retail sector, which experienced a double digit growthrate of 11% over the past five years, and is expected to maintain this trajectory in 2019 (see Figure 4).This momentum is largely due to Vietnam’s rapid population growth, and its emerging middle class. Currently,Vietnam is home to a population of about 96 million – up from about 60 million in 1986 – with 70% under the ageof 35. The middle class, which now accounts for about 13% of its population, is also expected to grow to about26% by 20269.Figure 3: Vietnam’s Consumer Confidence Index (2014-2019)129124117104102117 116115105108109107 9Source: General Statistics OfficeFigure 4: Vietnam’s retail growth rate 8Source: General Statistics Office8 “Consumer confidence index (CCI)”. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ndex-cci.htm9 “Vietnam’s population to reach 96.2 million”. Vietnam Investment Review. 12 July 2019. -962-million-69245.html06

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumThe Vietnam Consumer SurveyIn the first edition of the Vietnam Consumer Survey, we explored anumber of consumer behaviour patterns uncovered by the recentconsumer survey conducted by Deloitte in Hanoi, Ho Chi MinhCity, Can Tho, and Da Nang in the second half of 2019. We begin byexamining the overall consumer sentiment and spending patterns,before deep diving into specific buying behaviours and brandpreferences. Finally, we will analyse the communication and buyingchannels, and the issue of payment in Vietnam’s predominatelycash-based economy.MethodologyThe survey was conducted in the second half of 2019 across 1,000households through face-to-face interviews in four major cities:Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho, and Da Nang. Hanoi and Ho ChiMinh City were selected for this survey as they are two of the mostsignificant contributors to Vietnam’s GDP, as the capital of Vietnamand the largest metropolitan in the country respectively. On theother hand, Can Tho was chosen as it is widely considered to be thecapital of the western provinces, with its strong economic growthand rapid ascension as one of Vietnam’s leading economic hubs,while Da Nang was chosen as the largest city, as well as commercialand educational centre, of central Vietnam.Basic NecessitiesRecreationalGoods Beverages (NonAlcoholic) Confectionery Packaged Foods Beverages(Alcoholic) TobaccoLifestyle GoodsConsumerElectronics Clothing &Footwear HouseholdCleaningProducts Personal HygieneProducts Audio & VideoElectronics HouseholdAppliances(Major) HouseholdAppliances (Small) Mobile Phones,Digital Cameras &Other GadgetsOthers Housing & Transportation Welfare & LeisureThe respondent sample was constructed to be representativeof Vietnam’s overall population in terms of age, gender, monthlyhousehold income level, education level, and decision-making role.Respondents were surveyed on their spending patterns, buyingbehaviours, brand preferences, communication channels, buyingchannels, e-commerce activities, and geographic differences across14 product categories.07

Demographics of survey respondentsThe Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumAge group, years20%20-2950%50%30%40-4930%20%50-60Demographics of survey respondentsDemographics of survey respondentsGeographical distributionGender distributionMonthly household income level, VND millionDa Nang5-915%30%Can Ho Chi Minh CityMore than 40Age distributionAge group, yearsDa Nang20%20-2915%30-3930%40-4930%30%Can Tho20%50-6040%Monthly household income distributionHo Chi Minh CityMonthly household income level, VND million5-915%10-1436%15-1933%20-39More than 400814%1%15%Hanoi1%

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumPre-consumption1. Consumer sentimentOverall, the Vietnamese consumer is optimisticabout the future economic outlook, and the majorityplan to increase their expenditure in the year ahead.A bright outlookThe Vietnamese consumer is optimistic about their economic prospects in the near future. On average, surveyrespondents rated their confidence levels in Vietnam’s overall economy 7.5 out of 10 (where 0 represents thelowest confidence level, and 10 represents the highest confidence level).Furthermore, these scores increased with the timeframe in question: survey respondents assigned higherconfidence level scores for the next year, and even higher scores for the next three to five years. A similar trendcan also be observed for the confidence level in household income level improvements (see Figure 5).Figure 5: Confidence levels in improvements to overall economy and household income level8. yearOverall economyNext yearNext 3-5 yearsHousehold income levelSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)09

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumDifferent expenditure patterns across citiesGenerally, Basic Necessities accounted for a significant proportion of expenditure, with survey respondents acrossthe four cities spending about 40-50% of their monthly household expenditure on Basic Necessities, such asPackaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages (see Figure 6).Figure 6: Breakdown of monthly household expenditure by %19%24%18%18%41%40%42%40%OverallHanoiHo Chi Minh CityBasic NecessitiesLifestyle GoodsWelfare & LeisureHousing & TransportationCan Tho4%6%13%12%17%48%Da NangConsumer ElectronicsRecreational GoodsSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)Beyond Basic Necessities, however, several differences have been observed in the expenditure patterns acrossthe four cities: Higher expenditure on Housing & Transportation in Ho Chi Minh City: Housing & Transportation accountsfor a larger proportion of household expenditure for survey respondents in Ho Chi Minh City as compared tosurvey respondents in the other three cities. One main reason for this could be the rising housing prices in HoChi Minh City, which have been escalating in recent years. For example, the average price per square metre ofan apartment in Ho Chi Minh City costs about VND 58.5 million, whereas a similar apartment in Hanoi would bepriced at about VND 33.4 million per square metre10. Higher expenditure on Lifestyle Goods in Hanoi: Amongst all survey respondents, those from Hanoi spentthe highest proportion, or 23%, of their household expenditure on Lifestyle Goods. This reflects the widelyheld opinion that Hanoi consumers tend to be more conscious about their public image, including looks andappearances. Higher expenditure on Consumer Electronics in Can Tho: Survey respondents in Can Tho have beenobserved to be dedicating the highest proportion of their household expenditure to Consumer Electronics.One reason for this could be the recent uptake of digitisation in the city and its regional areas, which are nowcatching up with other parts of the country in terms of digitisation, and access to satellite and wireless services.This phenomenon is also evident in the mushrooming of electronics retailers and e-commerce activities acrossthe city, as consumers increase their demand for mid-tier smartphones, and modern consumer electronicsproducts.1010“Real estate market report Q2/2019”. CafeLand. 15 July 2019. at-dong-sanquy-22019-81059.html

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumPoised for an uptickIn line with their optimistic sentiment, the majority 48% of survey respondents expressed an intention to increasetheir expenditure (see Figure 7). Amongst the four cities, survey respondents in Can Tho and Da Nang expressedplans for the highest increases in expenditure, with 68% and 84% indicating plans for increased future expenditurerespectively. This is in contrast to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, which remain more moderate, with only about 50%and 19% indicating plans for increased future expenditure respectively (see Figure 8).There is, however, some nuance to this: survey respondents in Hanoi who intend to increase their expenditureplan to do so by about 25%, the highest level amongst survey respondents across all cities. This is consistentwith the Hanoi consumer’s choice to allocate greater expenditures to higher value purchases, such as Audio &Video Electronics, Major Household Appliances, and Mobile Phones, Digital Cameras & Other Gadgets. On theother hand, survey respondents in Ho Chi Minh City expect to increase their spending by only 14%, preferring toprioritise spending on product categories such as Clothing & Footwear, Personal Hygiene Products, and SmallHousehold Appliances.Figure 7: Overall plan for future expenditureFigure 8: Plan for future expenditure by cities4%6%19%77%48%46%Hanoi5%27%68%Da Nang8%Spend moreMaintain50%Spend lessSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)42%Ho Chi Minh City14%2%84%Can ThoSpend moreMaintainSpend lessSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)11

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumRising interest in Mobile Phones, Digital Cameras & Other GadgetsAcross all household income levels, we witnessed an intention to increase expenditure on the Mobile Phones,Digital Cameras & Other Gadgets category, with 33% of survey respondents indicating that they wouldlike to spend more on this category (see Figure 9). This result is consistent with predictions of increasedsmartphone penetration rates in Vietnam, which is expected to grow from 31% in 2017 to 45% in 2023 (seeFigure 10). Much of this growth is likely to come from rural areas, where only 68% of the population possess asmartphone11.Figure 9: Spending intent by productBeverages ged FoodsBeverages (Alcoholic)Tobacco35%5%Personal Hygiene Products4%80%15%85%14%Recreational Goods1%Clothing & FootwearHousehold Cleaning Products61%Basic Necessities50%45%20%79%31%67%5%2%Lifestyle Goods2%Audio & Video Electronics17%78%6%Household Appliances (Major)17%78%5%Household Appliances (Small)15%82%3%Consumer ElectronicsMobile Phones, Digital Cameras &Other Gadgets33%62%Spend moreMaintain5%Spend lessSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)Figure 10: Smartphone penetration rate in Vietnam Source: Statista11 “Life on a smartphone”. The Voice of Vietnam. 23 July 2019. e-400450.vov12

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentum2. Consumer awarenessThe Vietnamese consumer utilises a broad rangeof different communication channels across bothoffline and online platforms.A diversified mix of channelsOverall, the Vietnamese consumer appears to have a relatively balanced communication channel mix. WhileTelevision, and word-of-mouth recommendations from Relatives, as well as Friends & Colleagues, remainimportant, other channels, such as In-Store Promotions and Holiday Discounts also have significant roles to play inthe purchasing decisions of our survey respondents (see Figure 11).While we believe that word-of-mouth recommendations will always hold value in the form of trust and credibility,we have also observed that as consumers gain access to a wider range of communication channels, the impact ofthese informal channels diminishes somewhat: in Ho Chi Minh City, for instance, word-of-mouth recommendationsare given a slightly lower level of importance as survey respondents look towards other sources of information.Figure 11: Preferred sources of informationOverall17%17%17%9%Hanoi17%17%17%8%Ho Chi Minh City16%Can Tho18%18%Da Nang18%19%11%19%TelevisionOnline & DigitalIn-Store PromotionsRelativesOutdoorExpertsFriends & ColleaguesPrint MediaRadio4%15%7% 1%1%18%5%9% 1%17%6%16%6%18%6%12%11%16%16%7% 2%9%17%3%8%16%4%11%Source: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)Of note is also the fact that Online & Digital channels have not yet completely taken off in Vietnam. This is incontrast to other channels, such as In-Store Promotions, which are preferred over Online & Digital channelsbecause they enable the consumer to see, touch, and feel a product before deciding to make the purchase.Nevertheless some traction for Online & Digital channels can already be witnessed amongst survey respondentsaged 30-39, as well as survey respondents from Ho Chi Minh City (see Figure 12). Overall, as Internet andsmartphone penetration rates continue to accelerate across Vietnam, we expect to see Online & Digital channelstaking on greater importance in the near future.13

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumFigure 12: Preference for Online & Digital channels by age group and locationAge group, years13%20-29Location19%15%30-3940-4927%13%7%More than 50HanoiHo Chi Minh City5%9%Can ThoDa NangSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)Multi-channel media consumptionAlthough survey respondents continue to spend a significant amount of time on the TV, Internet browsing andsocial media activities also collectively account for more than half of their media consumption at 64%. This patternis particularly pronounced for younger survey respondents below the age of 29, where Internet browsing andsocial media activities account for about 74% of their media consumption, or about 3.7 hours per day. For theseactivities, mobile is also preferred channel (see Figure 13).But that is not to say that older respondents are not digitally savvy: survey respondents above the age of 40also spend more than 58% of their time, or more than 3 hours per day, on Internet browsing and social mediaactivities. This suggests that Vietnamese consumers across all age groups are highly adaptable to new technology,and the potential of using online and digital communication channels to target older consumers should not beunderestimated.Ultimately, the survey results underscored the need for comprehensive multi-channel communication strategiesfor companies to integrate online and digital channels, such as social media, with traditional and offline channels,such as TV, in order to effectively communicate and engage with their consumers.Figure 13: Average number of minutes spent on different communication channels per dayAge group,yearsTotal hours per 544625689757117Internet browsing (PC)Social media (PC)TVInternet browsing (Mobile)Social media (Mobile)Radio4.81805.45.07775Source: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)1492884841427325385.55.7

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumSocial media is serious businessWith an active social media penetration rate of 64%, Vietnam has been ranked as the country with theseventh highest number of Facebook users as of July 2019. By the end of 2019, the number of Facebook usersin Vietnam is expected to hit 45.3 million, up from 41.7 million in 201712.In response to the increasing social media uptake, companies in Vietnam have been intensifying theirmarketing efforts on social media channels: in 2019, businesses are expected to spend up to USD 744 million,or 85% of their total digital marketing expenditure, on social media advertising – a 200% increase from their2017 levels13.While YouTube, Facebook, Zalo, and Instagram remain the most popular social media platforms in Vietnam(see Figure 14), local social media platforms are also on the rise. For example, Lotus, a social media platformcreated through the collaboration between Vietnam Communications Corporation, and several online ande-commerce platforms, such as Admicro, Kenh14, Mua Chung, Rong Bay, and Soha News, has been launchedin its beta phase and currently boasts about 4 million users.Lotus, however, is not a direct competitor of platforms such as Facebook, as its business model centres oncreating an effective platform to support content creators. Over 200 technical engineers in various fields suchas mobile application development, artificial intelligence, and Big Data technologies – have been involved in itsdevelopment14.Figure 14: Most popular social media platforms in VietnamYouTube96%Facebook95%Facebook rest19%Twitch18%Snapchat16%Reddit16%Social networkingMessaging/Voice over IPSource: Hootsuite12 of-vietnam-facebook-users13 “Digital advertising”. Statista. dvertising/vietnam#market-revenue14 “Social network - Lotus Vietnam "attracts" users because "Content is King”!”. Ministry of Information & Communication.10 September 2019. la-Vua--.html15

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentum3. Purchasing preferencesQuality perceptions and considerations drive most ofthe Vietnamese consumer’s purchasing preferences,including their specific brand preferences fordifferent product categories.Quality is keyAcross all product categories, survey respondents consistently ranked Quality as one of the top attributes drivingtheir purchasing decisions, ahead of other considerations such as Price. In this section, we will examine theirpurchasing preferences in greater detail to uncover trends specific to the various product categories.Food & Beverage productsFood & Beverage products consists of the Alcoholic Beverages, Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Confectionery, PackagedFoods, and Tobacco product categories, which collectively account for 46% of total household expenditure, or thelargest share of consumption for survey respondents. Amongst all the attributes, Quality emerged as the top driverfor purchasing decisions for all sub-categories, with the exception of Tobacco, where Taste is the most importantconsideration (see Figure 15).As the Vietnam consumer becomes more affluent, non-price attributes will become more salient in their decisionmaking process, and price sensitivity is likely to decline as they prioritise other attributes such as Trust and Tastepreferences. Overall, Quality and Taste are the top two most important attributes that consumers are willing to paya premium for, and companies competing in Food & Beverage categories should therefore consider strategies tobuild a strong reputation with brand associations of high quality and product differentiation.Figure 15: Top attributes driving purchase behaviour for Food & Beverage coholic)ConfectioneryQualityTasteTrustPriceSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)1627%13%Packaged FoodsTobacco

The Vietnam Consumer Survey An accelerating momentumNon-Electronics productsFor the Clothing & Footwear product category, Quality and Design considerations outweigh Price as the two mostimportant decision-making attributes. This suggests room for companies to introduce higher quality, trendierproducts at slightly higher price points. Indeed, one of the leading domestic sportswear brands has managedto succeed using such a strategy: its line of sneakers targeted at young consumers has become one of the mostsought-after sneakers in the market as a result of its modern design, high level of comfort, and affordable pricepoint.In a similar vein, Quality, Brand Trust, and Price are the top three drivers for Household Cleaning Productsand Personal Hygiene Products (see Figure 16). This is an indication that brand reputation and perception areimportant consideration factors, and companies should not only emphasise functionality when communicating thevalue of their product, but also focus on building their overall credibility.Figure 16: Top attributes driving purchase behaviour for Non-Electronics categories15%12%13%16%15%17%18%19%21%22%Clothing roducts14%16%QualityDesignBrand trustPriceFitHealthSource: Deloitte’s Vietnam Consumer Survey (2019)Health concerns heat upAlthough the Health attribute has consistently been ranked as only the fourth and fifth most importantconsideration across the Non-Electronics and Food & Beverage categories respectively, health concerns arelikely to grow in importance as Vietnam’s middle class continues to gain affluence and look towards morepremium products.There are already signs that this trend is beginning to take off: in one study, it was found that over 60% ofVietnamese households are now opting for sugar-free or low-sugar drinks15. Dairy-free milk alternatives havealso been growing in popularity, as consumers increasingly prefer “nut milk” products – beverages made fromnuts such as almonds, walnuts, and hazelnuts – as an alternative to dairy milk, as these products are perceivedto be more nutritious and better for cardiovascular health. In response to this increasing demand, leading dairyproducers in Vietnam have also begun to expand their range of nut milk products in the market.Similarly, we are witnessing a growing interest in natural ingredients and products in the Household CleaningProducts and Personal Hygiene Products categories, as consumers seek to avoid negative

The Vietnam Consumer Survey In the first edition of the Vietnam Consumer Survey, we explored a number of consumer behaviour patterns uncovered by the recent consumer survey conducted by Deloitte in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho, and Da Nang in the second half of 2019. We begin by examining the overall