No Fuss, Just WirelessWireless charging forelectric vehicles

Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging No fuss, just wirelessElectric Vehicles set for growthThe use and acceptance of Electric Vehicles (EVs) amongstbusinesses and consumers will become more prevalent, drivenby investment from the automotive and infrastructure industries.Behind this growth, total cost of ownershipQualcomm Halo believes that wirelesswill be one of the key purchasing criteria, ascharging, which is simple and convenient, willwill the simplicity of charging. Qualcommeventually become the preferred chargingbelieves that the improved user experiencemethod for all EVs. That is why we aredelivered by wireless charging will enhancedeveloping our universal wireless chargingEV growth. Plug-in charging is far from simple;technology that can be deployed in allit is cumbersome, brings potential health,geographic areas. Simplicity and minimumsafety and reliability issues, especially atdriver intervention are key features that winstreet level, while public charging equipmentout time-and-time again, and we believeis open to damage from the environment,when these features are coupled with highvandalism, and is visually unappealing.power transfer efficiency, wireless chargingis a winning combination.“ It is relatively easy to muscle power across a gapwithout any consideration of the consequences.The real achievement is to understand the parametersat play and transfer that power effortlessly.”Nigel P. Cook. Principle Investigator, Qualcomm Wireless Power2 Qualcomm Halo Electric Vehicles

Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging No fuss, just wirelessWireless electric vehicle charging visionOur lives are becoming less and less about wires and cables andmore about wireless: from mobile phones, to the wireless Internetand recently low power wireless charging for mobile phones.Wireless power though is aboutWEVC stationary charging is the nearOne of those key criteria is thatto take a huge leap in scale, asterm future with ease and simplicitycharging must be effortless.kilowatts can now be transferredof electric vehicle charging; whileover an air gap of hundreds ofDEVC, Dynamic Electric Vehiclemillimeters while still maintainingCharging, is the medium/long termhigh-energy transfer of a totally no fuss wirelessWireless Electric Vehicle Chargingelectric vehicle charging society.Qualcomm Halo WEVC technologyuses magnetic resonance to couplepower from the BCU to the VCUthat is part of the vehicle chargingsystem. Power is transferred to the(WEVC), is a no fuss, simple solutionInventive StepsVCU pad via magnetic coupling andfor charging electric vehicles andInductive power has been aroundthis energy is used to charge thehybrid electric vehicles. Whilefor over 100 years, and many peoplevehicle’s batteries.WEVC technology is ideally suitedtoday experience the unique physicsto stationary wireless charging,of magnetic resonance when theyit also opens up the possibilitycharge their electric toothbrush.of dynamic wireless charging –Qualcomm Halo has taken thecharging the electric vehicle batteryfundamentals of inductive powerwhile the vehicle is being driven.transfer and by introducing severalThe adoption of WEVC technologywill lead to a shift in chargingbehavior. Drivers will charge theirelectric vehicle little and often andpotentially use dynamic charging tocomplement local stationary chargingremoving range anxiety. This meansthat batteries could be smaller withthe resulting reduction in electricvehicle cost and vehicle weight.3 Qualcomm Halo Electric VehiclesA Qualcomm Halo WEVC systemcan also transfer energy from theelectric vehicle battery to theelectricity grid, in what is known asVehicle to Grid (V2G) charging.inventive steps and technologybreakthroughs has developeda solution that meets the keycriteria needed to grow the electricvehicle market.WEVC Technology ExplainedAcronymsWEVCWireless ElectricVehicle ChargingDEVCDynamic ElectricVehicle ChargingBCUBase Charging Unit– on or under the groundVCUVehicle Charging Unit– on the vehicleEVElectric VehiclePHEVPlug-in HybridElectric VehicleV2GVehicle to Grid

Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging No fuss, just wirelessWhy wireless electric vehicle charging will winThe early experience from electric vehicle drivers isthat they generally charge overnight with very occasionalcharging at public charging points.Early adopters likely have easyElectric vehicle drivers themselvesDynamic Chargingaccess to a home charging point,will also opt for the simplicity ofCharging an electric vehicle whileeither in their garage or on theirwireless charging; no fuss and nodriving is the ultimate deploymentdrive. The mass market though willhassle from unwieldy, dirty cablesof WEVC technology. Dynamicbring with them different chargingthat are difficult to handle whenCharging removes the need forneeds. Many EV drivers will have toit is cold and wet. In addition, weconstant charging stops, whenuse street parking due to a lack ofbelieve many drivers would be warytravelling long distances: in fact,dedicated private parking spaces, inof using plug-in cables in heavy rainjourneys of hundreds of miles/city apartments for instance. Publicor when the car or charge point iskilometers would be possible withcharging demand will thereforecovered in snow.Dynamic Charging.There is also a clear economicalQualcomm Halo envisage a transportbenefit to wireless charging; keepingsystem where licensed operatorsUtilities and municipalitiesthe battery charge at between 40-80%build out the Dynamic Chargingconsequently have two options;will optimize the life of the electricnetwork in a similar way to whichto deploy plug-in charging withvehicle battery. Small top-up chargingwireless communications networksan increase in street furniture, thatwill therefore become the norm: athave been deployed. Dynamic Electriccarries the risk of vandalism and thehome, at work, at the supermarket.Vehicle Charging (DEVC) technologyloosening and oxidization of electricWireless charging lends itselfwould be integrated into one or moreconnections; or to deploy groundperfectly to this kind of userlanes of main roads and highwaysbased or below ground wirelessbehavior. We think drivers wouldand DEVC drivers would drive andcharging with no street clutter. Thisnot make the effort to plug-in andcharge at the same time. It reallyalso removes the health and safetycharge for 5-10 minutes, while awould be that simple.risk to the general public of trippingwireless charging driver would doand falling over high voltage because of the simplicity of parkincrease as electric vehicleownership expands.and wireless top-up, especially ifcoupled with fast authentication.Qualcomm Halo expect new businessmodels to develop around DEVCnetworks and services, potentiallymirroring the wireless communicationsbusiness models that have helpeddrive global adoption of wirelessmobile phones and devices.4 Qualcomm Halo Electric Vehicles

Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging No fuss, just wirelessBusiness model & Qualcomm pedigreeThe world leader in next-generation mobile andwireless technologies, Qualcomm is no strangerto the wireless charging space.Business ModelThere are two approaches to anindustry business model for wirelesselectric vehicle charging; afragmented vertical model wheremultiple companies vie for marketposition based on a mostlyproprietary technology offering;or alternatively, a horizontal modelwhere a common standardizedtechnology forms the basis formultiple company wireless chargingsolutions. Both business modelsThe validation of this model can beQualcomm Pedigreeseen in the extensive competitionThe world leader in next-generationin the markets that Qualcommmobile and wireless technologies,operates in and the growth theseQualcomm is no stranger to themarkets continue to experience. Inwireless charging space, havingaddition, Qualcomm Halo participatesalready developed technology andin relevant standards bodies tosolutions for wirelessly chargingQualcomm Halo’s business model ishelp drive common standards thatmobile handsets and portablehorizontal; to aggregate Research andfoster a faster transition to newconsumer electronics devices.Development (R&D) and transfertechnological advances.offer technology innovation, which isessential to drive market adoption,but only a horizontal business modelcan deliver keen market competitionand long-term economies of scaleto drive down from highly experiencedQualcomm Halo technology isIt’s a win-win-win situation; forbased on years of investmentthe auto manufacturers who getincluding technical and commercialcompetitive offers for a standardsdevelopment over the past twobased interoperable technology;decades by The University offor component suppliers who canAuckland, an acknowledged pioneerThis business model is collaborativeinnovate at a feature level whilein wireless power transfer. The resultand means that multiple companiesbenefiting from industry-wideis a robust Qualcomm Halo solutioncan bring their own inventiveness toR&D programs; and for customersand a substantial patent portfoliothe table while enabling ecosystemwho get cost efficient wirelesscovering inductive charging for bothpartners to focus on their own corecharging and don’t have to worrylow power and high power systems.competencies to develop uniqueabout the compatibility of wirelessproduct features and build totalcharging support functions soa broad range of licensees can beconfident in the technology andproducts we provide.system capabilities.Qualcomm Halo Electric Vehicles 5

Qualcomm Halo Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging No fuss, just wirelessStandardizationStandards need to be at the heart of theWEVC technology and ecosystem to driveand accelerate industry growth.Standardization leads the way tolow. Global open standards haveThis ability to magnetically align thea No Fuss, Just Wireless, chargingproven time and time again thattwo charging pads becomes essentialcustomer experience that is vital forhigh growth rates can be achievedshould dynamic charging becomecustomer adoption.and sustained; and all players in theone of the preferred chargingecosystem can benefit financiallysolutions for electric vehicles in thefrom a standards-based approach tofuture. A Qualcomm Halo dynamicthe electric vehicle charging industry.charging network would still workCharging has to be simple: all WEVCBase Charging Units (BCU) andVehicle Charging Units (VCU) needto be compatible so that customersThe Qualcomm Halo business modeldo not have to search for a chargingis built around standards, technologystation that works with theirlicensing, and continued innovationparticular vehicle charging support ecosystem development.Ubiquity is a must: coverage is whatAlignment and Tolerancedrives adoption. The more chargingQualcomm Halo WEVC technologyopportunity, at home, at the office, atuses patented innovativeall the places we park, the moretechnology that enables highlyconfident customers will be aboutefficient power transfer betweenthe electric vehicle driving experience.the BCU and VCU even when theCosts must be controlled: price iskey to create a global market forWEVC and electric vehicle growth.Proprietary and closed technologieskeep costs high and competitionQualcomm Headquarters5775 Morehouse DriveSan Diego, CA 92121T: 1 858 587 1121F: 1 858 658 2100www.qualcomm.comat high power transfer efficiencyeven with the vehicle drifting acrossthe dynamic charging lane, typicalduring normal driving.Magnetic alignment is an inventivestep; an innovative breakthrough;and it makes Qualcomm HaloWEVC technology effortless to use.charging pads are not completelyaligned. This makes parking simpleand easy for drivers who do notneed to park accurately in theWEVC charging bay.Qualcomm EuropeBuilding 4Chiswick Park566 Chiswick High RoadLondon W4 5YE. UKT: 44 208 996 4100F: 44 208 996 4170www.wevc.comE: [email protected] 2011 Qualcomm Incorporated. All rights reserved. QUALCOMM is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United Statesand other countries. QUALCOMM HALO is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other products or brand names may be trademarksor registered trademarks of their respective owners. Qualcomm reserves the right to change any product specifications. Nothing in thisdocument is an offer to license or sell any of technology referenced herein.

Vehicle Charging Units (VCU) need to be compatible so that customers do not have to search for a charging station that works with their particular vehicle charging system. Ubiquity is a must: coverage is what drives adoption. The more charging opportunity, at home, at the office, at all the places we park, the more