*TM 5-662TECHNICAL MANUALNo. 5-662}HEADQUARTERSDEPARTMENT OF THE ARMYWASHINGTON, DC, 28 February 1986REPAIRS AND UTILITIESSWIMMING POOLOPERATION AND MAINTENANCETABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTIONPurpose .References .Applications .Morale .Health .Energy Conservation Policy.CHAPTER 2 SAFETYGeneral.Operating Suggestions .Dangerous Practices .Pool Design .Pool Depth.Pool Accessories .Water Clarity.Pool Colors .Pool Linings .Pool Lighting.Accident Prevention.Dangerous Conditions .Lifesaving Facilities .First Aid .CHAPTER 3 TYPES OF POOLSGeneral.Fill-and-Draw and Flow-Through Pools.Recirculating Pools .Trough or Gutter Type .Rim Flow Type.Surface Skimmers .Wading Pools .Types of Wading Pools.CHAPTER 4 STANDARDSPersonnel .Quality of Swimming Pool Water .Work Schedule .Housekeeping.Sanitation .CHAPTER 5 PRINCIPLES OF POOL OPERATIONPatron Sanitation .Bodily Infection .Showering and Eating.Water Treatment Techniques .Recirculation.Filtration.Disinfection .pH Control .Economy .CHAPTER 6 THE CHEMISTRYOFCHLORINA TIONHypochlorous Acid (HOC1) Formation.Effect of pH.Other Reasons for pH Control.Free vs Combined Chlorine .Super Chlorination .’This manual supersedes TM 5-662 dated 6-16-1

TM 5-662Paragraph PageCHAPTERCHAPTER 8CHAPTER 9CHAPTER 10CHAPTER 11CHAPTER 127Breakpoint Chlorination.Intentional Chlorine Stabilization.Stabilization Chemistry .Stabilization Technique.Control of pH and Chlorine Residual.Chlorination Control .Chlorine Test Procedure (DPD Method).pH Control .pH Effect.Total Alkalinity Control .DISINFECTION AND OXIDATION PRODUCTSGeneral.Chlorine Products .Elemental Chlorine .Calcium Hypochlorite.Sodium Hypochlorite.Lithium Hypochlorite .Chlorinated Cyanurates .Elemental Bromine .Organic Bromine.Algicides .Products .Silver .Ultraviolet Light.GAS CHLORINATIONGeneral.Sizing Equipment.Feed Rate.pH Effect.Gas Cylinders .Connecting Cylinders.Cylinder Location.Handling and Storing Gas Cylinders .Emergency Preparedness .Leak Procedure .First Aid .LIQUID CHLORINE SOL UTIONSGeneral.Chemicals.Storage.Solution Preparation .Liquid Chlorine Feeders.Positive Displacement Type Feeders.Feeder Fouling .Setting Feed Rates .Equipment Service .Service Schedule.THE RECIRCULATION SYSTEMGeneral.Piping .Drains, Overflow Gutters & Surface Skimmers .Strainer.Filter Plant .Chemical Feeders .Inlet Distribution System .System Operation Parameters.FILTRATIONGeneral.Recirculation Pump Theory of Operation .Operating Parameters .Filter Types.Characteristics.SAND FILTRATIONGeneral.Flocculation .Effect of 212-312-112-112-1

TM 5-662CHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTER131415Anthracite Filtration.Sand Filter Types .Rapid Sand Filter Construction .Rapid Sand Filter Operation .High Rate Sand Filter Construction.High Rate Sand Filter Operation .Gravity Sand Filter .Backwash Theory .Backwash Operation.Equipment Inspection .DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATIONGeneral.The Filter Media.The Filter Septum .Precoating the Filter Septum .Continuous Body Feeding the Filter.The Physical Plant .Dry Feeder.Slurry Feeder.Flow Rates and Filter Sizing .General Filter Cleaning.Vacuum System Filter Cleaning.Pressure System Filter Cleaning .Inspection Schedule .SWIMMING POOL HEATINGGeneral.Sources of Heat Gain and Loss .Evaporative Losses .Conduction and Convection Losses.Thermal Radiation .Heat Losses to the Ground .Swimming Pool Heat Gains .Pool Temperature .Swimming Season .Heaters.Gas and Oil Heaters .Electric Heaters .Active Solar Heating Systems.Heat Exchanger.Fuel Burners .Water Temperature Control .Thermostat Setting .Manual Control .Energy Saving Concepts .Swimming Pool Covers.Energy Saving Potential.Types of Pool Covers .Benefits of Pool Covers .Translucent Air Cell Cover .Insulating Foam Cover.Specialty Covers.Handling of Pool Covers .OPERATION AND MAINTENANCEGeneral.Preventive Maintenance .Establishing Preventive Maintenance Program.Daily Operating Procedure.Seasonal Care.Pool Opening.Pool Startup.Pool Closing .Preparing Unpainted Surfaces for Painting .Sandblasting.Cleaning Steel Surfaces .Painting Concrete Surfaces .Painting Steel Surfaces 3

TM 5-662CHAPTERAPPENDIX16ABCDEFGParagraphPainting Piping.15-14Chemical Cleaning (Diatomite Filters).15-15Backwashing .15-16Filter Repairs .15-17Operating and Repair Procedure for Chlorine Equipment .15-18Preventive Maintenance .15-19Corrosion Control.15-20Corrosion Prevention .15-21Underwater Lighting.15-22Other Electrical Facilities .15-23RECORDSPool Construction Drawings.16-1Piping Diagrams .16-2Equipment Operating Instruction .16-3Valve Index.16-4Maintenance Records.16-5REFERENCES .CHEMICAL OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS.MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE (DPD METHOD) .CALCULATIONOFTURNOVER.PUMP CHARACTERISTICS.SIZING A RAPID SAND FILTER .SIZING A DIATOMITE FILTER.LIST OF esaving Equipment .Longitudinal Section through Pool, Showing Fittings.Typical Recirculation Pool & Equipment .Overflow Gutter and Skimmer.Typical Childrens Pool .Flow Diagram of Manually Controlled Everson Vacuum Chlorinator .Manually Operated Pressure Type Rapid Sand Filters.Typical Diatomite Filter .Body Feeding and Cleaning Diatomite Filters .Tray Type Diatomaceous Earth Filters.Typical Heavy Duty Diatomite Swimming Pool Pressure Filter.Typical Filter Room Equipment.Typical Swimming Pool Heater Piping Arrangement .

these diseases from swimming pool water. 1-6. ENERGY CONSERVATION POLICY. All military swimming pool installations should have a management improvement program that includes policies and guidelines relating to the efficient use and conservation of utilities. Such programs are offered by the National Swimming Pool Institute and various