ACKNOWLEDGMENTSLead author: Dr Gail SmithLead editors: Unilever Sustainable Agriculture team:David Pendlington, Jan Kees Vis, Sophie Studley, Vanessa KingContributing editors: Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Community of Practice:Andrea Asch, Andrea Granier, Changyan Ma, Charles Kumbemba,Dimitris Efthymiopoulos, Dr Christof Walter, Gabriel Clark, Gabriel Tuei,Gerd Neumann, Joe Rushton, Klaas Jan van Calker, Leslie Leinders,Marcelo Rivara, Melissa Miners, Olive Zhou, Randy Rickert, Savindar Singh,Sikke Meerman, Terence Baines, Vijay Sachdeva, Ximing Hu, Zakaria MiteiSpecial thanks to: Ardo, Bayer Crop Science, CEOCO (Central Edible Oil (Pty)Ltd.), COFCO TUNHE CO., LTD, Control Union, CristalCo, De Marchi, Du PontInternational Operations Sarl, English Mustard Growers (Colman’s of Norwich),FrieslandCampina, Gastouni Factory (Unilever Greece), Marcatus QED,Mendoza (Unilever Argentina), The Morning Star CompanyDesign: A10plus, Rotterdam, www.a10plus.nlPhoto credits: Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, ESG Kräuter GmbH,Farmed Environment Company, Jain Irrigation Systems2Sustainable Agriculture Code 2017


INTRODUCING THE 2017 REVISION OF THEUNILEVER SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE CODEThe Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Code is one of the major tools in our sustainable sourcingprogramme. Since 2010, when it was first launched, it has helped us gain a clear overview of howquickly we are progressing towards our sustainability ambitions in agricultural sourcing. This year, weare launching a new updated version of the Code to reflect our evolving understanding of sustainabilityand of the contexts – geographical, cultural and political – within which our farms operate. As with theoriginal version, our new Code sets out major targets for farms and suppliers to work towards, inspiringthem to make sustainability mainstream. It is also closely aligned with other Unilever policies, such asUnilever’s land rights policy.WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE UNILEVERSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE CODE?The Code can be used in different ways. For example,The Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Code is a collec-it provides a consistent set of criteria for assessingtion of Good Practices which aim to codify importanthow suppliers, and the farmers who supply them, areaspects of sustainability in farming and to apply them toprogressing when it comes to sustainability. It can also beour Supply Chain. The scope and ambition of the Codeused to benchmark externals standards and to make deci-reflect the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan objectives,sions upon sustainable sourcing. But first and foremost, itmaking it fundamental to our business. In tandem withis used as the standard that Unilever aims to achieve.HOW DO WE USE THE CODE?positive partnerships along our supply chain, the Code willdrive sustainable development and responsible sourcingpractices.WHAT IS THE ETHOS OF THE CODE?The Code represents a holistic approach to sustainableagriculture. It is wide-ranging in scope, applying to diversePRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTUREgeographies and farming systems (from smallholders toUnilever adheres to the following principles of sustainablelarge plantations). It also acknowledges diverse politicalagriculture since the year 2000:contexts, covering nation-states with strong legal frame--Produce crops with high yield and nutritional quality toworks, commitments to sustainability and subsidies – andmeet existing and future needs, while keeping resourcenation-states who have not developed these structures toinputs as low as possible.the same extent.Ensure that any adverse effects on soil fertility, waterImplementation challenges vary enormously. In the devel-and air quality, and biodiversity from agricultural activi-oped world, farmers already see themselves as under-ties are minimised, and positive contributions are madevalued for their hard work and overburdened by regulationwhere possible.and administrative tasks. So they are not always easilyOptimise the use of renewable resources while mini-amenable to implementing frameworks which go beyondmising the use of non-renewable resources.existing legal requirements.Enable local communities to protect and improve theirElsewhere, the problems are different. Smallholders, inwellbeing and environmentparticular, may have neither the training, resources nor--These principles represent the right combination ofpower to develop the productive and resilient food produc-economic development, environmental protection andtion systems required to feed a growing world population,social improvement. We look for these principles to benor to provide a living income for their families.reflected in all sustainability standards we work with.4Sustainable Agriculture Code 2017

WHY REVISE THE CODE?commitments down the supply chain. As a result, weSince 2010, understanding of many of the issues underlyinghave included more specific criteria focused on hygiene,unsustainable farming has increased. At the same time,training, toilet and washing facilities and drain design. Wenew priorities have emerged and partial solutions to oldrecognised the need for workers to be able to hand-washproblems have been developed. We, in Unilever, have alsowith soap before eating in the previous version of themade new commitments on a range of issues affectingCode, and for toilet provision in farm accommodation andour supply chains. This is why, seven years since the firstprocessing facilities (e.g. packing plants). So, in the 2017version of the Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Codeversion of the Code, we try to address the critically impor-was developed, 2017 will see the publication of a revisedtant issue of avoiding open defecation on farmland, whilstversion.recognising that the provision of toilets and menstrualhygiene management around farms in all parts of theworld is not going to be deliverable in the very short term.HOW HAS THE CODE CHANGED?The new version of the Code also asks “leading” farmers topromote healthy lifestyles amongst the farming communityLand Useand workforce; this criterion will obviously be interpretedOur 2010 version did not cover land use change; it focuseddifferently in different parts of the world, but could clearlyinstead on improving practices in existing farms. In our newfocus on hand-washing and toilets in some places, HIV/version, however, we cover the environmental and socialAIDs prevention in others and no-smoking or healthy-challenges associated with land use change, includingeating campaigns elsewhere.deforestation and the protection of valuable ecosystemsand habitats.Boosting resilienceAnother important issue is safeguarding community LandClimate smart agriculture requires farmers not only toRights: essential for protecting food security and inclusivereduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbondevelopment. But however passionately we oppose ‘landsequestration in order to ameliorate climate change, butgrabbing’, we often come across political systems whichalso to improve productivity and enable farming systemsdo not give adequate protection to indigenous people andto become more climate-resilient. Our Code has alwayswomen. For that reason, our new Code demands Freefocused on practices that boost productivity and resil-Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) from indigenousience; soil and water conservation measures, improvingpeoples and vulnerable communities before land usesoil fertility, and the rational trade-offs amongst risk, yieldchange takes place in accordance with our Land Rightsand product quality that planting material choice and involve. But for many farmers – and probablymost smallholders - managing risk can be a higher priorityEnsuring alignmentthan maximising yield and profitability as crop failure hasAcross the Code as a whole, we make sure our positionsuch devastating financial consequences. Training forlines up with what is happening elsewhere at Unilever andsmallholders and other farmers, to increase understandingbeyond. For instance, our Code is aligned with Unilever’sand empower better decision-making, is therefore anposition on Eliminating Deforestation and has drawn onexpanded area in the 2017 Code, which also encouragesour 2016 Responsible Sourcing Policy. It also builds on oursuppliers get involved in farmer savings, insurance andpartnership, launched in 2014, with the International Fundsupport programmes where appropriate.for Agricultural Development (IFAD).Our revised Code, combined with our Responsible SourcingIn addition, we are keeping an eye on the development ofPolicy, has improved requirements for dealing with griev-High Carbon Stock (HCS) participative process develop-ances in the workplace. It now stipulates that everyonement in order to bring learnings into the our supply chains should have recourse to transparent,fair and confidential procedures if they want to raise anSpotlight on healthissue or express a concern. Another new criterion focusesTo protect people’s health at work on the farm, Unileveron conflict resolution and managing grievances betweenhas also made new commitments to cascade WASH1farms or plantations and the local community.1 WASH: Water, sanitation, hygiene. See:

WHERE OUR NEW CODE REACHES ITS LIMITSWomen’s empowerment and fair wages and incomes areWHAT DO THE TWO VERSIONS OF THE CODEHAVE IN COMMON?a major concern to us at Unilever. They are both complexMany aspects of our new Code have not changed signif-issues with huge cultural, religious, legal and regulatoryicantly from 2010. We expect Unilever suppliers to seeovertones. As a result, our Code can only do so much incontinuity in terms of scope, ambition, structure andthese areas.emphasis on continuous improvement. For example, weBut there are still positive steps that can be taken. When itbelieve in the value of metrics, and will continue to try tocomes to gender, the Code provides guidance on good prac-collect and analyse metrics data from our supply chains totice and training for both women and men, and encourageshelp understand our overall business impact over time.equal, fair treatment on the farms which supply us.We have also tried to keep to a structure and approachWhile we are committed to fair pay on these farms, thisalready familiar to our suppliers. One major change is thearea is not covered in the revised version of our Code. Theincorporation of all the metrics data collection into thechallenges of assessing and benchmarking pay issues‘Continuous Improvement’ chapter; another is moving allmeant the results were not ready for this version. Whatthe issues now covered by the 2016 Unilever Responsibleour Code does call for, and has done since 2010, is legalSourcing Policy (RSP) into their own separate chapter.and fair compensation that must include timely and fullpayment of wages and clear pay information.LANGUAGEThe language and concepts we use in our Code are alreadydifficult for many farmers to understand, especially inIMMEDIATE COMPLIANCE WITH THIS CODEWILL NOT BE A CONDITION FOR SMALLHOLDERFARMERS TO SUPPLY TO UNILEVERtranslation; this is why we work closely with our suppliersThe Unilever supply base includes many SmallholderNatural Capital (although we have tried to explain theFarmers. One of the aims of our Sustainable Sourcingconcept of ecosystem services), Social Capital, Climateprogramme is to support these SHF, and organize accessChange amelioration, Climate Change mitigation and sofor them to Good Agricultural Practices and technicalon. Stakeholders focused on these issues will be able tosupport. So we expect them to be able to adhere to our SACanalyse the Code and understand how we have tried toat some point in time. But, for many smallholder farmersaddress the issues without necessarily using technicalthis might take considerable time. Specifically where landlanguage.rights are not well organized and/or documented, it couldtake a number of years to improve. This means thosefarmers do not meet some of the mandatory requirementsof this Code. This will, in itself, not lead to exclusion fromthe Unilever supply programme.6Sustainable Agriculture Code 2017and consultants to support the programme. But we havealso chosen NOT to use technical terminology such as

STRUCTURE OF THIS DOCUMENTRESPONSIBILITIESThis Code is applicable to all Unilever suppliers of agricul-Type of criterionExplanationtural goods, the farmers producing the raw materials andMandatoryNon compliance with these requirements is unacceptable to Unilevercontractors working on the farms. We hold our suppliersExpectedOriginally classified as must inSAC2010. A requirement that isexpected to be complied with andfor which non-compliance is acceptable only for a certain proportion ofrequirements.implement the Code in a manner consistent with theLeadingOriginally classified as should inSAC2010. These have the potentialto become obligatory requirements(expected) in the future.(S) and farmers (F) responsible for determining how tocriteria set out in the Code. Although we have allocatedcriteria to suppliers (S) or farmers (F) throughout the Code,we are comfortable that the practices may be undertakenby the other party in some supply chains.KEYBusinessEnvironmentPeopleFFarmer criterionSSupplier criterion* Please respond** For information only*** At least one of these expected7

1 AGRICULTURE - CROP AND PASTURE NUTRIENT(FERTILISATION) MANAGEMENT1.1  Integrated nutrient managementF1Nutrient Management Plan andnutrient application recordsThere shall be a Nutrient Management Plan implemented on everyfarm. The plan shall be prepared and/or designed by a competentindividual or authority, who may be part of the supplier agronomyteam. The Nutrient Management Plan will include a requirement tokeep records of nutrients applied for at least 2 years.ExpectedF2Taking crop needs into accountThe nutrient requirements of the crop or pasture must be understood at all stages of growth, and used to design the NutrientManagement Plan.ExpectedF3Informed by nutrient deficiencysymptoms, soil and tissue analysesRegular soil and/or tissue nutrient testing shall be used to adjust theapplication rates, as part of the Nutrient Management Plan. If this isnot practical, the observation of nutrient deficiency/over applicationsymptoms on the crop or pasture may be used as an indicator.ExpectedF4Soil and weather conditionsSoil conditions shall be used to adjust the application rates, as partof the Nutrient Management Plan. If different parts of the farm havedifferent soils, nutrient management is expected to vary appropriately. Nutrient applications must be timed to avoid application duringperiods of heavy rain, snow or frozen ground, cracked, waterloggedor compacted soils, as nutrients will not be retained in the soil undersuch conditions.ExpectedF5Inputs - nutrient contents and associated risksThe nutrient content and availability of fertilisers, manures,composts, cover crops and crop residues used shall be recorded,tested and/or estimated, and the results used to inform the NutrientManagement Plan.ExpectedF6Nitrogen and phosphoruscalculationsThe Nutrient Management Plan must include a calculation of theamount of Nitrogen and Phosphorus to be applied in each year,taking into account all sources of nutrients applied and those available from the soil. The calculation must also include an assessmentof the amount of nutrients removed from the crop or pasture byharvesting and/or grazing.ExpectedF7Minimise risks of contamination andpollution associated with nutrientinputsNutrient sources that can pose risks to people, the environmentor product quality shall be avoided. This can be achieved either bytesting inputs for contaminants to ensure that levels are below tolerable limits OR by an assurance/investigation that shows the sourceof the material to be free from contamination.Expected1.2  Application of fertilisers, manures, composts and other plant nutrient8F8Application equipment - maintenanceand cleaningApplication equipment must be maintained in good working orderand safe to use. It is cleaned after use.ExpectedF9Application equipment - calibrationApplication equipment (including fertigation) must deliver thedesired flow rates and distribution patterns. Manual application offertilisers shall achieve even distribution and correct placement ofthe fertiliser.ExpectedF10Application methods adopted thatminimise waste and pollutionHigh trajectory application techniques for spreading slurry and othernutrients are wasteful and also increase the risk of exposing water,living areas, public areas, or areas of high biodiversity value (whichusually require low rates of nutrient inputs). High-risk techniquesmust be abandoned or modified by using technologies such asdeflector plates, incorporation /injection of slurry or urea-basedfertilisers, spot or hand application.ExpectedSustainable Agriculture Code 2017

2 AGRICULTURE - PEST, DISEASEAND WEED MANAGEMENT2.1  Pest, disease and weed management (IPM)F11Crop Protection Plan (CPP)An Integrated Pest Management (IPM)/Crop Protection Plan mustbe in place based on IPM principles (prevention, observation, monitoring and intervention). The Plan will include the recommendedthresholds or triggers to spray Crop Protection Products (CPPs)where these are available. The Plan must be reviewed annually forUnilever crops.ExpectedF12Prevention: Crop rotation, and allocations to suitable parts of the farmThe IPM Plan must include processes and criteria for selecting suitable growing areas, field rotations and varieties in order to minimisethe risks of inoculum build-up, infestations and contamination of theharvested product.ExpectedF13Prevention: Biological and physicalcontrolsThe farm agro-ecosystem is managed in such a way that problems are minimised, for example by variety choice or field marginmanagement, to ensure that biological and physical cultural controlsare used before (and/or in combination with) CPP application.ExpectedF14Observation, monitoring and actionthresholdsFarmers shall be able to recognize diseases, pest and weeds and beaware of defined thresholds for action e.g. through warning systemsor on-farm monitoring. Farmers have a monitoring and scoutingprogram for the crop in place.ExpectedF15Intervention: Compliance with regulatory and customer requirementsIntervention can take place with biological and /or chemical CPPsregistered and approved for use by the competent authorities,customer and/or supplier requirements. CPPs must be applied inaccordance with the label requirement. If a licence is required toapply CPPs under local regulations, this shall be obtained.F16Intervention: CPP choiceChoice to be based on suitability for the crop and target organism,resistance management programmes, plus advice on the label toprotect vulnerable ecosystems and organisms. See also Health andSafety section for additional criteria.ExpectedF17Intervention: CPP resistanceavoidanceWhere possible, the risks of developing resistance to CPPs must belowered by rotating active ingredients with different modes of action.ExpectedF18Intervention: No prophylactic use ofCPPsCPPs must not be used to prevent outbreaks of pests or disease(rather than in response to action thresholds being exceeded, orforecasting) except in exceptional circumstances and where evidenceshows that that it poses lower risk to people and/or the environmentthan curative controls.ExpectedF19Intervention: Fumigation and aerialsprayingIf fumigation or aerial spraying is the only economic control option,it must be in accordance with local legislation. It must not pose additional risks for human health and the environment.ExpectedMandatory2.2  Application of crop protection productsF20Application recordsRecords must be made of the vendor, reason for spraying, triggerfor spraying (action threshold or other), formulated product name,active ingredient name(s), active ingredient(s) concentration informulated product, total amount of formulated product used, areasprayed and type of sprayer.ExpectedF21Targeted applicationSystems must be put in place to ensure that CPPs reach all targetedareas and to minimise losses to non-target areas or the atmosphere.ExpectedF22Avoiding damage to beneficialorganismsFarmers must follow carefully the label instructions on CPPs toavoid damage to beneficial organisms (e.g. pollinators such as bees,and predators of pests such as parasitic wasps or insectivorousbirds); choose active ingredients and formulations that are lessdamaging to the beneficial organisms; and apply at times of theday using application technology that minimises direct exposure ofbeneficial organisms and their habitats to the sprays.Expected9

F23Maintaining CPP applicationequipmentCPP application equipment must be maintained in good workingorder and safe to use.ExpectedF24Calibration of application equipmentApplication equipment must be maintained. Annual checks ofsprayers and other CPP application equipment must be conductedto regulate distribution patterns and application rate, to align withmanufacturers recommendations.Expected10Sustainable Agriculture Code 2017

3 AGRICULTURE - SOIL MANAGEMENTF25Soil management planThere shall be a soil management and conservation plan implemented on every farm. The plan shall be prepared and/or informedby a competent individual or authority (e.g. a farmer educatedto college level in agriculture, a professional agronomy advisor/consultant or government or a research institution advice). Therecords of the soil management plan will be kept for at least 2 years.ExpectedF26Including assessment of risksThe soil management plan must include an identification of themajor risks to soil and the suitability of the land for its intended usebased on soil and topography, organic carbon levels, risk of erosion,compaction, salinisation/desertification, and special soil resources.ExpectedF27Allocation of activities to suitable soiland topographyCrops, pasture and animal housing are allocated to land with suitable soil and topography. Parts of the farm with unsuitable soil ortopography (e.g. areas of rocky or shallow soil, steep slopes, areassubject to flooding, near trees) must not be planted with crops, evenif it is physically easier to “blanket plant” the whole area. Planning ofthe planting is required when choosing which crops to put on whichsoils and in which areas of the farm, in order to avoid direct risks(and the spread of) pests, diseases and weeds.ExpectedF28Management of erosion risksUnless the risk of soil erosion is assessed as insignificant (seeguidance), the risk must be managed. This includes identifying areasof the farm particularly susceptible to erosion, and putting in placemanagement plans, grazing and cropping systems that reduce therisk. Monitoring soil cover and effectiveness of land managementsystems in place (drains, bunding, terracing, contour planting, windbreaks, cover crops etc.) to minimise erosion must then be incorporated into the management plan.ExpectedF29Management of compaction risksUnless the risk of soil compaction is assessed as insignificant (seeguidance), the risk must be managed. Compaction risks need tobe reduced from methods that deal with the symptoms for minorcompaction problems, e.g. breaking soil caps and subsoiling, tomethods that deal with the causes, e.g. controlled traffic, conservation tillage.ExpectedF30Soil Organic Carbon/Organic MatterManagement practices must be put in place that maintain orenhance Soil Organic Carbon/Organic MatterExpectedF31No damage to important localecosystemsNo soil shall be taken from local nature reserves, riverbanks orland set aside for conservation, for use on the farm (e.g. for use innurseries).MandatoryF32Peat soils (land conversion)No NEW planting (conversion to agriculture) or draining on tropicalpeat soils (of any depth).MandatoryF33Peat soils on farmPeat soils must not be subject to high stocking rates, or othermanagement practices that lead to high GHG peat soil emissions.MandatoryF34No use of agricultural soils as wastedumpsNeither you nor your workers must ever dispose of inappropriatematerials (such as untreated sewage, medical or veterinary waste,oil, CPPs, CPP packing or containers) on your land unless specifically allowed by law and it is safe to use the affected land for foodproduction.MandatoryF35Soil quality monitoringSoils must be monitored to confirm that soil degradation is nottaking place and that management plans are resulting in improvements. Monitoring must include concentrations of availablemacronutrients (see nutrients chapter), pH, Soil Organic Carbon/Organic Matter, salinity, micronutrients, heavy metals, excessiveerosion and compaction where there is a risk of degradation in theseparameters.Expected11

4 WATER MANAGEMENT(RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT)Some aspects of water management are covered by Unilever’s Responsible Sourcing Policy for farms.4.1  Improving water use and water use efficiency (excluding irrigation)F36Drain managementDrains must be constructed in such a way that soil erosion isminimised during drainage (e.g. running across slopes, lining withvegetation or hard surfaces). Drains must discharge into riparianareas rather than directly into surface waters, or diffuse discharge/protected discharge must be arranged.ExpectedF37Water infrastructureEnsure water infrastructure is in good working condition byinspecting taps, water supply pipes, water troughs, drainage channels and receiving waterways regularly, and ensure rapid repairswhen leaks are found. Where necessary protect pipes from frostdamage.ExpectedF38Reduction in water use, includingre-use of water (excluding irrigation)Water use in washing-down animal housing and yard areas shouldbe reduced by scraping or sweeping floors before washing down,using high-pressure hoses, or re-using wash down water from foodpreparation areas.LeadingF39Water retentionIn areas where high wind speeds are encountered, use windbreaksor cover crops to reduce water (and soil) loss. Wind breaks shouldalso be used to protect livestock from extreme weather.LeadingF40Sustainable withdrawal (abstraction)of waterTick which applies (F40a - F40c).F40a. No water withdrawal. Note - if you irrigate or are involved inanimal husbandry, this option is not available to you.*N/AF40b. Legal Compliance. If it is necessary to have a licence orpermit to extract the volume of water you use, the licence must havebeen obtained, and the volume of water stated on the licence mustnot have been exceededMandatoryF40c. If no licence or permit is required, there must be evidencethat current rates of abstraction are acceptable to relevant authorities (e.g. in the form of metered delivery and payments through anational distribution scheme, or there has been advice from waterauthorities or a relevant consultant that current rates of abstractionare acceptable).ExpectedF41Equable distribution within thecatchmentWater harvesting and withdrawal are monitored, and systems are inplace to try, as far as practicable, to meet the needs of local communities, other water users, as well as wildlife and ecosystems in thecatchment. If there are Land Care or Catchment Management Plansavailable, these should be complied with.LeadingF42No use of water bodies as wastedumpsNeither you nor your workers ever dispose of inappropriate materials (such as oil, CPPs, CPP packing or containers, medicines,animal manure) in rivers, streams or other surface or ground water.MandatoryF43Protecting water bodies from pollution by sewage and wash waterSurface and ground water must be protected from direct and indirectpollution. Toilets, water used for cleaning milking parlours, andlivestock yard washing-water must not discharge directly into watercourses but discharged at a sufficient distance to avoid any infiltration through soil into watercourses and water tables. If it is necessary for livestock to cross watercourses, the crossing points must bemade of hard materials to minimise riverbank erosion into the water.Machinery must not be washed directly in streams or rivers.ExpectedF44Protecting water bodies from pollution by agricultural activitiesLosses of nutrients, CPPs and agricultural soil to water must beminimised, as must the over application of nutrients on land adjacent to, or draining into, watercourses.ExpectedF45Buffer zonesBuffer zones adjacent to streams, rivers, wetlands, ponds and otherwater bodies are planted, maintained or restored, preferably withnative species. Please tick whichever applies, F45a or 45b.12Sustainable Agriculture Code 2017*

F45a. If this is a legal requirement, compliance is mandatory.F45b. If this is not a legal requirement, the size of such zones andtheir management must broadly conform to those specified inNational and SAC implementation guidance.MandatoryExpected4.2  IrrigationF46Type of irrigationTick whichever system is closest to your situation.*F46a. None**F46b. Drip**F46c. Micro-sprinklers/under-canopy sprinklers**F46d. Centre-pivot**F46e. Above-canopy sprinkler system**F46f. Flood**F46g. Irrigation used in nursery area only**F46h. Others**F47Criteria for new irrigation systemsThe decision on which system to install must consider sustainabilityfactors.ExpectedF48Sustainable water supplyThere is good e

3 contents introducing the 2017 revision of the unilever sustainable agriculture code 4 1 agriculture - crop and pasture nutrient (fertilisation) management 8 2 agriculture - pest, disease and weed management 9 3 agriculture - soil management 11 4 watermanagement (resource and environmental management) 12 5 biodiversity and ecosystem services 14